Are There Types of Academically Entitled Students? A Cluster Analysis


  • Dennis L. Jackson University of Windsor
  • Chelsea McLellan University of Windsor
  • Marc P. Frey University of Windsor
  • Carolyn M. Rauti University of Windsor


Academic entitlement (AE), which includes some students’ tendencies to express deservingness of academic outcomes, not based on achievement, may have serious implications, such as academic dishonesty and classroom incivility. Some researchers have suggested that there may be different types of students with regard to AE, implying that motives for entitled behaviour may not be uniform. The current study extends previous work in identifying subtypes of AE. A sample of 751 undergraduate students responded to measures of AE, narcissism, and performance avoidance learning orientation. Cluster analysis revealed five distinct clusters: Entitled Narcissist, Entitled Non-Narcissist, Unobtrusive Entitlement, Not Entitled, and Performance Avoidant. The Entitled Narcissist cluster is small in size and members generally have a higher sense of entitlement. The Entitled Non-Narcissist cluster is larger in size and members tend to have high performance avoidance scores. Understanding typologies of AE could lead to different strategies for addressing highly entitled students.

Keywords: academic entitlement, student entitlement, cluster analysis, typologies

Author Biographies

Dennis L. Jackson, University of Windsor

Dennis L. Jackson, Ph.D., is Head of the Department of Psychology, University of Windsor. His research interests include issues in measurement, quantitative psychology, and educational psychology.

Chelsea McLellan, University of Windsor

Chelsea McLellan, Ph.D., is a Research Analyst at Malatest & Associates with research interests in educational psychology.

Marc P. Frey, University of Windsor

Marc P. Frey, Ph.D., is currently Manager of Planning and Strategic Initiatives at the Windsor/Essex Health Unit. His research interests include educational, health, and quantitative psychology. 

Carolyn M. Rauti, University of Windsor

Carolyn M. Rauti, M.A., is a Ph.D. student in Applied Social Psychology at the University of Windsor. Her research interests are in educational, health, and industrial/organizational psychology.




How to Cite

Jackson, D. L., McLellan, C., Frey, M. P., & Rauti, C. M. (2020). Are There Types of Academically Entitled Students? A Cluster Analysis. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne De l’éducation, 43(4), 1008–1034. Retrieved from