Dear reader,

The quest for scientific knowledge is always a long and winding pathway. This issue of FLR reflects this pathway and possible crossroads. All articles in this issue try to find different data sources to improve empirical data quality. The message is clear: don’t trust only one data source and use multiple data sources creatively. 

Klaus Beck analysed the role of expert for ensuring content validity of psychological and educational test. For this purpose, he reviewed 72 published reports within two research programs in Germany for academic and vocational education. His conclusion was that methodological procedures of qualitative and quantitative input from experts should be improved. 

Heemskerk & Malmberg triangulated self-reports and observations in the classroom for 5 days to identify the engagement of pupils in the classroom. Engagement varied more greatly within lessons than between lessons and whole-group instruction was associated with the lowest level of engagement. 

Zhao et al. introduced an interesting new online measure: the distance to the screen. Closer head-to-screen distance can indicate a challenging task. Larger fluctuation can indicate high cognitive load and predict upcoming response accuracy. 

Jorion et al. used log files generated by an interactive tangible tabletop. Different museumgoers collaborated in a complex situation to catch fish. With clustering techniques and heatmaps, patterns for unstructured activities were identified. These patterns appear to be a meaningful addition to observation data. 

Mouw et al. combined person-oriented, process-oriented, and effect-oriented analytical approaches for analysing the perspective-taking ability of primary-school children. The effect of perspective-taking ability on cooperative behaviours and learning outcomes depends on its conceptualization and measureme

You can find the complete issue of Frontline Learning Research here.

Stay healthy!

Prof. Dr. Thomas Martens

Editor-In-Chief Frontline Learning Research