Complexity-Aware Monitoring and Evaluation

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Tilman Hertz Eva Brattander Loretta Rose


Background: Addressing today’s sustainability challenges requires adopting a systemic approach where social and ecological systems are treated as integrated social-ecological systems. Such systems are complex, and the international development sector increasingly recognises the need to account for the complexity of the systems that they seek to transform.

Purpose: This paper sketches out the elements of a complexity-aware monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system for international development programmes in the area of sustainable development. 

Setting: Not applicable.

Data Collection and Analysis: The authors draw on existing literature on complexity and evaluation and on their own experience from working in the field of M&E.

Findings: An M&E system should not be seen simply as a tool to track compliance against a pre-determined theory of change. Instead, it is most useful as a real-time approach, constantly defining and re-defining narratives for change that help push systems along trajectories of interest. Dealing with complexity involves embracing uncertainty; and this challenges established notions of accountability—something which funders and implementers must begin to redefine together.

Keywords: monitoring; evaluation; complexity; social-ecological systems; international development programmes; narratives for change; theory of change


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How to Cite
HERTZ, Tilman; BRATTANDER, Eva; ROSE, Loretta. Complexity-Aware Monitoring and Evaluation. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, [S.l.], v. 17, n. 41, p. 35-50, june 2021. ISSN 1556-8180. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 jan. 2022.