Bhagavad-Gita: History’s First Manual on Results-Based Management

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Craig Russon


Background: This is one in a series of articles in which the author attempts to relate Eastern philosophy to contemporary programme planning and evaluation.


Purpose: The author compares and contrasts the Bhagavad-gita with contemporary guidance on Results-based Management.


Setting: Not applicable.


Subjects: Not applicable.


Research Design: Not applicable.


Data Collection and Analysis: The author used the four pillars identified as being the base of RBM from a UNDP technical note as the framework for the analysis.

Findings: Not applicable.


Conclusions: In RBM strategic goals are defined that initiate a causal process in which results are specified to achieve the goals, and these, in-turn, determine programmes, processes and resources.


One of the central ideas of the Bhagavad-gita is the performance of activities without attachment or any expectation of results. This is a concept to which the tome refers as renunciation. Furthermore, the Gita states that renunciation enables us to enter into a conscious alignment with the higher order.






Keywords: Results-based Management; RBM; causality; accountability; indicators; United Nations Development Programme; UNDP; Krishna; Arjuna; Bhagavad-gita; Gita; renunciation; unattached action; Karma; Kimo’s rules


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How to Cite
Russon, C. (2013). Bhagavad-Gita: History’s First Manual on Results-Based Management. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 9(20), 43–46. Retrieved from
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