Self-Report is Indispensable to Assess Students’ Learning

Main Article Content

Reinhard Pekrun

Abstract

Self-report is required to assess mental states in nuanced ways. By implication, self-report is indispensable to capture the psychological processes driving human learning, such as learners’ emotions, motivation, strategy use, and metacognition. As shown in the contributions to this special issue, self-report related to learning shows convergent and predictive validity, and there are ways to further strengthen its power. However, self-report is limited to assess conscious contents, lacks temporal resolution, and is subject to response sets and memory biases. As such, it needs to be complemented by alternative measures. Future research on self-report should consider not only closed-response quantitative measures but also alternative self-report methodologies, make use of within-person analysis, and investigate the impact of respondents’ emotions on processes and outcomes of self-report assessments.    

Article Details

How to Cite
Pekrun, R. (2020). Self-Report is Indispensable to Assess Students’ Learning. Frontline Learning Research, 8(3), 185 - 193. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v8i3.637
Section
Articles

References

Azevedo, R., Taub, M., & Mudrick, N.V. (2018). Using multi-channel trace data to infer and foster self-regulated learning between humans and advanced learning technologies. In D. Schunk & Greene, J.A (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed., pp. 254-270). Routledge.
Bowles, P. V., & Sharman, S. J. (2014). A review of the impact of different types of leading interview questions on child and adult witnesses with intellectual disabilities. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 21, 205–217. doi: 10.1080/13218719.2013.803276
Brown, D. A., & Lamb, M. E. (2015). Can children be useful witnesses? It depends on how they are questioned. Child Development Perspectives, 9, 250-255. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12142
Castillo-Diaz, M., Padilla, J.-L. (2013). How cognitive interviewing can provide validity evidence of the response processes to scale items. Social Indicators Research, 114, 963–975.
Chauliac M., Catrysse, L., Gijbels, D., & Douce, V. (2020). It is all in the surv-eye: Can eye tracking data shed light on the internal consistency in self-report questionnaires on cognitive processing strategies? Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 26-39.
Clark, A. M. (2016). Why qualitative research needs more and better systematic review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 15, 1-3. doi: 10.1177/1609406916672741
Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.). Sage.
Durik, A., & Jenkins, J. (2020). Variability in certainty of self-reported interest: Implications for theory and research. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 86-104.
Fontaine, J. J. R., Scherer, K. R., & Soriano, C. (Eds.). (2013). Components of emotional meaning: A sourcebook. Oxford University Press.
Fryer, L. & Nakao K. (2020). The future of survey self-report: An experiment contrasting Likert, VAS, slide, and swipe touch interfaces. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 10-25.
Gignac, G. E. (2013). Modeling the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding: Evidence in favor of a revised model of socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 645–656. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2013.816717
Iaconelli, R., & Wolters, C. A. (2020). Insufficient effort responding in surveys assessing self-regulated learning: nuisance or fatal flaw? Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 105-127.
Karabenick, S. A., Woolley, M. E., Friedel, J. M., Ammon, B. V., Blazevski, J., Ree Bonney, C., . . . Kelly, K. L. (2007). Cognitive processing of self-report items in educational research: Do they think what we mean? Educational Psychologist, 42, 139–151. doi:10.1080/00461520701416231
Lajoie, S. P., Pekrun, R., Azevedo, R., & Leighton, J. P. (in press). Understanding and measuring emotions in technology-rich learning environments. Learning and Instruction.
Moeller, J., Dietrich, J., Viljaranta, J., & Kracke, B. (2020). Disentangling objective characteristics of learning situations from subjective perceptions thereof, using an experience sampling method design. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 63-85.
Murayama, K., Goetz, T., Malmberg, L.-E., Pekrun, R., Tanaka, A., & Martin, A. J. (2017). Within-person analysis in educational psychology: Importance and illustrations. In D. W. Putwain & K. Smart (Eds.), British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II: Psychological Aspects of Education – Current Trends: The Role of Competence Beliefs in Teaching and Learning (pp. 71-87). Wiley.
Pekrun, R., & Bühner, M. (2014). Self-report measures of academic emotions. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 561-579). Taylor & Francis.
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91-106.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Tech. Report No. 91-B-004). Board of Regents, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Rogiers, A., Merchie, E., & Van Keer, H. (2020). Opening the black box of students’ text-learning processes: A process mining perspective. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 40-62.
Swann Jr, W. B., Chang-Schneider, C., & McClarty, K. L. (2007). Do people's self-views matter? Self-concept and self-esteem in everyday life. American Psychologist, 62, 84–94. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.84
van Halem, N., van Klaveren, C., Drachsler, H., Schmitz, M., & Cornelisz, I. (2020). Tracking patterns in self-regulated learning using students’ self-reports and online trace data. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 142-163.
Voelkle, M. C., Brose, A., Schmiedek, F. & Lindenberger, U. (2014). Towards a unified framework for the study of between-person and within-person structures: Building a bridge between two research paradigms. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 49, 193–213. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2014.889593
Vriesema, C. C., & van Klaveren, C. (2020). Experience and meaning in small-group contexts: fusing observational and self-report data to capture self and other dynamics. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 128-141.