Main Article Content
Although a sizeable body of research now exists in epistemic cognition, it tends to stand apart to other aspects of cognition and cognitive development. Here it is proposed situating epistemic cognition in a context of its roots and development as a dimension of cognitive development more generally. The present paper draws a strong continuous link between the earliest understanding of other minds, examined under the Theory of Mind, and the tasks that confront adults throughout the lifespan – that of interpreting evidence and coordinating it with what they already take to be true. The primary focus is the How question of knowledge change. To gain insight into this question, it is proposed focusing on epistemic activity in action. It is suggested here that the standards for knowledge formation and revision, which are closely connected with epistemic understanding of theory-evidence coordination, change developmentally. Another major change, proposed, is that the process increasingly comes under conscious control.
FLR adopts the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Common License (BY-NC-ND). That is, Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors with, however, first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.
Amsel, E. & Brock, S. (1996). The development of evidence evaluation skills. Cognitive Development, 11, 523-550.
Anderson, R. C., Chinn, C., Chang, J., Waggoner, M., & Yi, H. (1997). On the logical integrity of children’s arguments. Cognition and Instruction, 15(2), 135-167.
Apperly, I. A., Warren, F., Andrews, B. J., Grant, J., & Todd, S. (2011). Developmental continuity in theory of mind: Speed and accuracy of belief-desire reasoning in children and adults. Child Development, 82(5), 1691-1703.
Astington, J. W., Pelletier, J., & Homer, B. (2002). Theory of mind and epistemological development: The relation between children's second-order false-belief understanding and their ability to reason about evidence. New ideas in Psychology, 20(2), 131-144.
Barzilai, S., & Zohar, A. (2012). Epistemic thinking in action: Evaluating and integrating online sources. Cognition and Instruction, 30(1), 39-85.
Bendixen, L., & Rule, D. (2004). An integrative approach to personal epistemology: A guiding model. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 69-80.
Birch, S. A. J., & Bloom, P. (2007). The curse of knowledge in reasoning about false beliefs. Psychological Science, 18(5), 382-386.
Bråten, I., Britt, M. A., Strømsø, H. I., & Rouet, J. (2011). The role of epistemic beliefs in the comprehension of multiple expository texts: Toward an integrated model. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 48-70.
Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., & Salmerón, L. (2011). Trust and mistrust when students read multiple information sources about climate change. Learning and Instruction, 21(2), 180-192.
Bromme, R., & Thomm, E. (2015). Knowing who knows: Laypersons’ capabilities to judge experts’ pertinence for science topics. Cognitive Science, 38(8) 1-12.
Carpendale, J. I., & Chandler, M. J. (1996). On the distinction between false belief understanding and subscribing to an interpretive theory of mind. Child Development, 67 (4), 1686-1706.
Carpendale, J., & Lewis, C. (2006). How Children Develop Social Understanding. Oxford: Blackwell.
Castelain, T., Bernard, S., Van der Henst, J.-B. and Mercier, H. (2015), The influence of power and reason on young Maya children's endorsement of testimony. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12336
Chinn, C. A., Buckland, L. A., & Samarapungavan, A. (2011). Expanding the dimensions of epistemic cognition: Arguments from philosophy and psychology. Educational Psychologist, 46(3), 141-167.
Chinn, C. A., & Brewer, W. F. (1993). The role of anomalous data in knowledge acquisition: A theoretical framework and implications for science instruction. Review of Educational Research, 63, 1-49.
Chinn, C. A., & Buckland, L. A. (2012). Model-based instruction: Fostering change in evolutionary conceptions and in epistemic practices. In K. S. Rosengren, S. K. Brem, E. M. Evans, & G. M. Sinatra (Eds.). Evolution challenges: Integrating research and practice in teaching and learning about evolution (pp. 211-232). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chinn, C. A., Duschl, R. A., Duncan, R. G., Buckland, L. A., & Pluta, W. J. (2008, June). A microgenetic classroom study of learning to reason scientifically through modeling and argumentation. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on International conference for the learning sciences-Volume 3 (pp. 14-15). International Society of the Learning Sciences.
Corriveau, K. H., & Harris, P. L. (2009). Preschoolers continue to trust a more accurate informant 1 week after exposure to accuracy information. Developmental Science, 12, 188–193.
Corriveau, K. H., Harris, P. L., Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Arnott, B., Elliott, L., … Rosnay, M. (2009). Child Development, 80(3), 750-761.
Eisbach, A. O. (2004). Children’s developing awareness of diversity in people’s trains of thought. Child Development, 75(6), 1694-1707.
Epley, N., Morewedge, C. K., & Keysar, B. (2004). Perspective taking in children and adults: Equivalent egocentrism but differential correction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 760-768.
Greene, J. A., Muis, K. R., & Pieschl, S. (2010). The role of epistemic beliefs in students’ self-regulated learning with computer-based learning environments: Conceptual and methodological issues. Educational Psychologist, 45(4), 245-257.
Greene, J. A., Sandoval, W. A., Bråten, I. (Eds.). Handbook of epistemic cognition. New York, NY: Routledge.
Harris, P. L., & Corriveau, K. H. (2011). Young children's selective trust in informants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1179-1187.
Harris, P. L., & Koening, M. A. (2006). Trust in testimony: How children learn about science and religion. Child Development, 77(3), 505-534.
Hofer, B. K. (2004). Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 43-55.
Iordanou, K. (2010). Developing argument skills across scientific and social domains. Journal of Cognition and Development. 11(3), 293-327.
Iordanou, K. (in press). Developing epistemological understanding through argumentation in scientific and social domains. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie.
Iordanou, K. & Constantinou. C. P. (2014). Developing pre-service teachers’ evidence-based argumentation skills on socio-scientific issues. Learning & Instruction. 34, 42-57.
Iordanou, K., Muis, K. & Kendeou, P. (2014). Epistemic understanding and meta-level processing of evidence when reading a text. Paper presented at the EARLI SIG2 conference. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Iordanou, K. & Constantinou. C. P. (2015). Supporting use of evidence in argumentation through practice in argumentation and reflection in the context of SOCRATES learning environment. Science Education. 99, 282–311.
Iordanou, K., Kendeou., P., & Beker, K. (2016). Argumentative Reasoning. In W. Sandoval, J. Greene, & I., Bråten. (Eds). Handbook of epistemic cognition. New York, NY: Routledge.
Jaswal, V. K., & Malone, L. S. (2007). Turning believers into skeptics: 3-year-olds' sensitivity to cues to speaker credibility. Journal of Cognition and Development, 8(3), 263-283.
Kinzler, K. D., Corriveau, K. H., & Harris, P. L. (2011). Children’s selective trust in native‐accented speakers. Developmental science, 14(1), 106-111.
Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Comparing self-regulatory processes among novice, non-expert, and expert volleyball players: A microanalytic study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 91–105.
Koenig, M. A., & Jaswal, V. K. (2011). Characterizing children’s expectations about expertise and incompetence: Halo or pitchfork effects? Child Development, 82(5), 1634-1647.
Köymen, B., Rosenbaum, L., & Tomasello, M. (2014). Reasoning during joint decision-making by preschool peers. Cognitive Development, 32, 74-85.
Kuhn, D. (2016). A Role for Reasoning in a Dialogic Approach to Critical Thinking. Topoi, forthcoming.
Kuhn, D., Cheney, R., & Weinstock, M. (2000). The development of epistemological understanding. Cognitive Development, 15, 309–328.
Kuhn, D., Iordanou, K., Pease, M., & Wirkala, C. (2008). Beyond control of variables: What needs to develop to achieve skilled scientific thinking? Cognitive Development, 23, 435–451.
Kuhn, D., & Moore, W. (2015). Argumentation as core curriculum. Learning: Research and Practice, 1(1), 66-78.
Kuhn, D., Zillmer, N., Crowell, A., & Zavala, J. (2013). Developing norms of argumentation: metacognitive, epistemological, and social dimensions of developing argumentive competence. Cognition and Instruction, 31(4), 456-496.
Lalonde, C. E., & Chandler, M. J. (2002). Children’s understanding of interpretation. New Ideas in Psychology, 20(2-3), 163-198.
Lehrer, R. and Schauble, L. 2015. The Development of Scientific Thinking. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. 2(16),1-44.
Mason, L., Ariasi, N., & Boldrin, A. (2011). Epistemic beliefs in action: Spontaneous reflections about knowledge and knowing during online information searching and their influence on learning. Learning and Instruction, 21, 137-151.
Mason, L., Boldrin, A., & Ariasi, N. (2010). Searching the web to learn about a controversial topic: are students epistemically active? Instructional Science, 38, 607-633.
Miller, S. A. (2012). Theory of Mind. Beyond the preschool years. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Mills, C. M. (2013). Knowing when to doubt: Developing a critical stance when learning from others. Developmental psychology, 49(3), 404-418.
Moshman, D. (2004). From inference to reasoning: The construction of rationality. Thinking and Reasoning, 10(2), 221 – 239.
Muis, K. R., Bendixen, L. D., & Haerle, F. C. (2006). Domain-Generality and Domain-Specificity in Personal Epistemology Research: Philosophical and Empirical Reflections in the Development of a Theoretical Framework. Educational Psychology Review, 18(1), 3-54.
Muis, K. R., Kendeou, P., & Franco, G. M. (2011). Consistent Results with the Consistency Hypothesis? The Effects of Epistemic Beliefs on Metacognitive Processing. Metacognition and Learning, 6, 45-63.
Perner, J., & Davies, G. (1991). Understanding the mind as an active information processor: Do young children have a “copy theory of mind”? Cognition, 39, 51-69.
Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Pluta, W. J., Chinn, C. A., & Duncan, R. G. (2011). Learners’ epistemic criteria for good scientific models. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(5), 486-511.
Roderer, T., & Roebers, C. M. (2014). Can you see me thinking (about my answers)? Using eye-tracking to illuminate developmental differences in monitoring and control skills and their relation to performance. Metacognition and Learning, 9(1), 1-23.
Sandoval, W. A. (2005). Understanding students’ practical epistemologies and their influence on learning through inquiry. Science Education, 89, 634-656.
Sandoval, W. A. (2014). Science education's need for a theory of epistemological development. Science Education, 98(3), 383-387.
Sandoval, W. A., & Millwood, K. A. (2005). The quality of students' use of evidence in written scientific explanations. Cognition and instruction, 23(1), 23-55.
Sandoval, W. A., Sodian, B., Koerber, S., & Wong, J. (2014). Developing children's early competencies to engage with science. Educational Psychologist, 49(2), 139-152.
Sinatra, G. M., Kienhues, D., & Hofer, B. K. (2014). Addressing challenges to public understanding of science: Epistemic cognition, motivated reasoning, and conceptual change. Educational Psychologist, 49(2), 123-138.
Sobel, D. M., & Corriveau, K. H. (2010). Children monitor individuals’ expertise for word learning. Child Development, 81(2), 669-679.
Stømsø, H. I., Bråten, I., & Britt, M. A. (2011). Do students’ beliefs about knowledge and knowing predict their judgement of texts’ trustworthiness? Educational Psychology, 31 (2), 177-206.
Tenney, E. R., Small, J. E., Kondrad, R. L., Jaswal, V. K., & Spellman, B. A. (2011). Accuracy, confidence, and calibration: How young children and adults assess credibility. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 1065-1077.
van der Stel, M., & Veenman, M. V. (2010). Development of metacognitive skillfulness: A longitudinal study. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(3), 220-224.
Walker, C. M., Wartenberg T. E., & Winner E. (2012). Engagement in Philosophical Dialogue Facilitates Children's Reasoning About Subjectivity. Developmental Psychology, 2(1), 1-10.
Wildenger, L. K., Hofer, B. K., & Burr, J. E. (2010). Epistemological development in very young knowers. In L. D. Bendixen, & F. C. Fleucht (Eds.), Personal epistemology in the classroom: Theory, research and implications for practice (pp. 220-257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wineburg, S. S. (1991). On the reading of historical texts: Notes on the breach between school and academy. American Educational Research Journal, 28(3), 495-519.
Zhang, T., Zheng, X., Zhang, L., Sha, W., Deák, G., & Li, H. (2010). Older children’s misunderstanding of uncertain belief after passing the false belief test. Cognitive Development, 25, 158-165.