When Knowing is Not Enough – the Relevance of Teachers’ Cognitive and Emotional Resources for Classroom Management

Main Article Content

Johanna Seiz
Thamar Voss
Mareike Kunter

Abstract

This study expands the discussion on teacher competence by investigating the relevance of teachers’ combined cognitive resources and emotional resources for effective classroom management. While research on teacher qualification stresses the importance of knowledge for effective teaching, research on teacher stress focuses on their emotional functioning, often without connection to their in-class behaviour. Drawing on findings from health psychology showing that high levels of emotional exhaustion can impair cognitive performance, we hypothesised that teachers’ pedagogical/psychological knowledge would predict their classroom management behaviour only when their level of emotional exhaustion was low. We administered a test to assess the pedagogical/psychological knowledge of 205 secondary school teachers, measured their emotional exhaustion, and assessed their classroom management using ratings of their 4,672 students obtained one year later. Data were analysed using latent moderation analyses, a novel statistical approach that rarely has been employed in research on learning and instruction. Our findings confirmed our hypotheses and indicated an interaction between teachers’ cognitive resources and emotional resources, which together predict their classroom management behaviour. Thus, the new theoretical and empirical integration of two distinct areas of teacher quality broadens our understanding of teacher resources necessary for effective instruction. We argue that teacher education should acknowledge the interplay of the different resources teachers have and help them develop their emotional resources to ensure effective instruction.

Article Details

How to Cite
Seiz, J., Voss, T., & Kunter, M. (2015). When Knowing is Not Enough – the Relevance of Teachers’ Cognitive and Emotional Resources for Classroom Management. Frontline Learning Research, 3(1), 55-77. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v3i1.141
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Johanna Seiz, Goethe University of Frankfurt

Department of Educational Psychology

Thamar Voss, University of Tübingen

Center of Educational Science and Psychology

Mareike Kunter, Goethe University of Frankfurt

Department of Educational Psychology

References

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression. Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications
Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C. N., & Oaten, M. (2006). Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1773–1802. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00428.x
Baumert, J., Gruehn, S., Heyn, S., Köller, O., & Schnabel, K. U. (1997). Bildungsverläufe und psychosoziale Entwicklung im Jugendalter (BIJU). Dokumentation, Band 1. Skalen Längsschnitt I, Welle 1-4 [Learning processes, educational careers and psychological development in adolescence and young adulthood (BIJU). Documentation, Vol. 1, Scales, Waves 1-4]. Berlin, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Human Development.
Baumert, J., & Kunter, M. (2013). The COACTIV model of teachers’ professional competence. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss, & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers (Vol. 8, pp. 25–48). New York, NY: Springer.
Baumert, J., Kunter, M., Blum, W., Brunner, M., Voss, T., Jordan, A., . . . Tsai, Y.-M. (2010). Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133–180. doi: 10.3102/0002831209345157
Becker, E., Goetz, T., Morger, V., & Ranellucci, J. (2014). The importance of teachers' emotions and instructional behavior for their students' emotions: An experience sampling analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 43, 15–26. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2014.05.002
Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (1999). Teacher burnout, perceived self-efficacy in classroom management, and student disruptive behaviour in secondary education. Curriculum and Teaching, 14(2), 7–26. doi: 10.7459/ct/14.2.02
Chang, M.-L. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 193–218. doi: 10.1007/s10648-009-9106-y
Chang, M.-L. (2013). Toward a theoretical model to understand teacher emotions and teacher burnout in the context of student misbehavior: Appraisal, regulation and coping. Motivation and Emotion, 37(4), 799–817. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9335-0
Chaplain, R. P. (2008). Stress and psychological distress among trainee secondary teachers in England. Educational Psychology, 28(2), 195–209. doi: 10.1080/01443410701491858
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral science (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
De Jong, R., Mainhard, T., Van Tartwijk, J., Veldman, I., Verloop, N., & Wubbels, T. (2014). How pre-service teachers' personality traits, self-efficacy, and discipline strategies contribute to the teacher–student relationship. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 294–310. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12025
Depaepe, F., Verschaffel, L., & Kelchtermans, G. (2013). Pedagogical content knowledge: A systematic review of the way in which the concept has pervaded mathematics educational research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 34, 12–25. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2013.03.001
Dicke, T., Parker, P. D., Holzberger, D., Kunina-Habenicht, O., Kunter, M., & Leutner, D. (2015). Beginning teachers' efficacy and emotional exhaustion: Latent changes, reciprocity, and the influence of professional knowledge. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 62–72.
Dicke, T., Parker, P. D., Marsh, H. W., Kunter, M., Schmeck, A., & Leutner, D. (2014). Self-efficacy in classroom management, classroom disturbances, and emotional exhaustion: A moderated mediation analysis of teacher candidates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(2), 569–583. doi: 10.1037/a0035504
Doyle, W. (2006). Ecological approaches to classroom management. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management (pp. 97–125). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Emmer, E. T., & Evertson, C. (2013). Classroom management for middle and high school teachers. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 103–112. doi: 10.1207/S15326985EP3602_5
Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximumlikelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8(3), 430–457. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem0803_5
Enzmann, D., & Kleiber, D. (1989). Helfer-Leiden: Stress und Burnout in psychosozialen Berufen [Helpers' suffering: Stress and burnout in psycho-social professions]. Heidelberg, Germany: Roland Asanger Verlag.
Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (2006). Classroom management as a field of inquiry. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management (pp. 3–15). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Fauth, B., Decristan, J., Rieser, S., Klieme, E., & Büttner, G. (2014). Student ratings of teaching quality in primary school: Dimensions and prediction of student outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 29(0), 1–9. doi: 1016/j.learninstruc.2013.07.001
Feldon, D. F. (2007). Cognitive load and classroom teaching: The double-edged sword of automaticity. Educational Psychologist, 42(3), 123–137. doi: 10.1080/00461520701416173
Feuerhahn, N., Stamov-Roßnagel, C., Wolfram, M., Bellingrath, S., & Kudielka, B. M. (2013). Emotional exhaustion and cognitive performance in apparently healthy teachers: A longitudinal multi-source study. Stress and Health, 29(4), 297–306. doi: 10.1002/smi.2467
Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(3), 182–195. doi: 10.1111/mbe.12026
Frenzel, A., Goetz, T., Stephens, E., & Jacob, B. (2009). Antecedents and effects of teachers' emotional experiences: An integrated perspective and empirical test. In P. A. Schutz & M. Zembylas (Eds.), Advances in teacher emotions research: The impact on teachers' lives (pp. 129–146). New York, NY: Springer.
Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495–513. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2005.11.001
Helsing, D. (2007). Regarding uncertainty in teachers and teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(8), 1317–1333. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2006.06.007
Helmke, A., & Renkl, A. (1993). Unaufmerksamkeit in Grundschulklassen: Problem der Klasse oder des Lehrers? [Inattention in primary classrooms: Problem of the class or of the teacher?]. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 25(3), 185–205.
Hill, H. C., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371–406. doi: 10.3102/00028312042002371
Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis. Techniques and application (2nd ed.). East Sussex: Routledge.
Johns, M., Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (2008). Stereotype threat and executive resource depletion: Examining the influence of emotion regulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(4), 691–705. doi: 10.1037/a0013834
Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491–525. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325693
Keller, M., Chang, M.-L., Becker, E., Goetz, T., & Frenzel, G. (2014). Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(1442). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01442
Klein, A. (2000). Moderatormodelle: Verfahren zur Analyse von Moderatoreffekten in Strukturgleichungsmodellen [Moderator models: Methods for the analysis of moderator effects in structural equation models]. Hamburg, Germany: Kovač.
Klein, A., & Moosbrugger, H. (2000). Maximum likelihood estimation of latent interaction effects with the LMS method. Psychometrika, 65(4), 457–474. doi: 10.1007/bf02296338
Kleinsorge, T., Diestel, S., Scheil, J., & Niven, K. (2014). Burnout and the fine-tuning of cognitive resources. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(2), 274–278. doi: 10.1002/acp.2999
Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., & Baumert, J. (2008). Teachers' occupational well-being and quality of instruction: The important role of self-regulatory patterns. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 702–715. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.702
Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Voss, T., & Baumert, J. (2012). Berufliche Beanspruchung angehender Lehrkräfte: Die Effekte von Persönlichkeit, pädagogischer Vorerfahrung und professioneller Kompetenz [Occupational stress of beginning teachers: The effects of personality, pedagogical experience and professional competence]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 26, 275–290. doi: 10.1024/1010-0652/a000078
Korthagen, F., & Kessels, J. P. (1999). Linking theory and practice: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education. Educational Researcher, 28(4), 4–17. doi: 10.3102/0013189X028004004
Kounin, J. S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Krauss, S., Brunner, M., Kunter, M., Baumert, J., Blum, W., Neubrand, M., & Jordan, A. (2008). Pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary mathematics teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 716–725. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.716
Kunter, M., & Baumert, J. (2006). Who is the expert? Construct and criteria validity of student and teacher ratings of instruction. Learning Environments Research, 9(3), 231–251. doi: 10.1007/s10984-006-9015-7
Kunter, M., Baumert, J., & Köller, O. (2007). Effective classroom management and the development of subject-related interest. Learning and Instruction, 17, 494–509. doi: 10.1016/ j.learninstruc.2007.09.002
Liston, D., Whitcomb, J., & Borko, H. (2006). Too little or too much: Teacher preparation and the first years of teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(4), 351–358. doi: 10.1177/0022487106291976
Luckner, A. E., & Pianta, R. C. (2011). Teacher–student interactions in fifth grade classrooms: Relations with children's peer behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 257–266. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2011.02.010
Lüdtke, O., Robitzsch, A., Trautwein, U., & Kunter, M. (2009). Assessing the impact of learning environments: How to use student ratings of classroom or school characteristics in multilevel modeling. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(2), 120–131. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.12.001
Lüdtke, O., Trautwein, U., Kunter, M., & Baumert, J. (2006). Reliability and agreement of student ratings of the classroom environment: A reanalysis of TIMSS data. Learning Environments Research, 9(3), 215–230. doi: 10.1007/s10984-006-9014-8
Marsh, H. W., Lüdtke, O., Robitzsch, A., Trautwein, U., Asparouhov, T., Muthén, B., & Nagengast, B. (2009). Doubly-latent models of school contextual effects: Integrating multilevel and structural equation approaches to control measurement and sampling error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44(6), 764–802. doi: 10.1080/00273170903333665
Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J. (2003). Classroom management that works - Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Counsulting Psychologists Press.
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1999). Teacher burnout: A research agenda. In R. Vandenberghe & A. M. Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and preventing teacher burnout: A sourcebook of international research and practice (pp. 295–303). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 397–422. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Mayer, R. E. (2012). Information processing. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, C. B. McCormick, G. M. Sinatra, & J. Sweller (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Volume 1: Theories, constructs, and critical issues (pp. 85–99). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Morris-Rothschild, B. K., & Brassard, M. R. (2006). Teachers´ conflict management styles: The role of attachment styles and classroom mangement efficacy. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 105–121. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.01.004
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2010). Mplus user's guide. Sixth Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Näring, G., Briët, M., & Brouwers, A. (2006). Beyond demand–control: Emotional labour and symptoms of burnout in teachers. Work & Stress, 20(4), 303–315. doi: 10.1080/02678370601065182
Nie, Y., & Lau, S. (2009). Complementary roles of care and behavioral control in classroom management: The self-determination theory perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 185–194. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2009.03.001
Ophardt, D., & Thiel, F. (2008). Klassenmanagement als Basisdimension der Unterrichtsqualität [Classroom management as a basic dimension for instructional quality]. In M. K. W. Schweer (Ed.), Lehrer-Schüler-Interaktion [Teacher-student-interaction] (2nd Ed., pp. 259–282). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Park, S., & Oliver, J. S. (2008). Revisiting the conceptualisation of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): PCK as a conceptual tool to understand teachers as professionals. Research in Science Education, 38, 261–284. doi: 10.1007/s11165-007-9049-6
Pianta, R. C. (2006). Classroom management and relationships between children and teachers: Implications for research and practice. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management (pp. 685–709). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pianta, R. C., & Hamre, B. K. (2009). Conceptualization, measurement, and improvement of classroom processes: Standardized observation can leverage capacity. Educational Researcher, 38(2), 109–119. doi: 10.3102/0013189x09332374
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9101.88.5.879
Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 700–712. doi: 10.1037/a0027268
Roehrig, A. D., Turner, J. E., Arrastia, M. C., Christesen, E., McElhaney, S., & Jakiel, L. M. (2012). Effective teachers and teaching: Characteristics and practices related to positive student outcomes. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, S. Graham, J. M. Royer, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Volume 2: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 501–527). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/13274-020
Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., . . . Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 787–804. doi: 10.1037/a0032093
Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493–529. doi: 10.3102/0034654311421793
Sabers, D. S., Cushing, K. S., & Berliner, D. C. (1991). Differences among teachers in a task characterized by simultaneity, multidimensionality, and immediacy. American Educational Research Journal, 28(1), 63–88. doi: 10.2307/1162879
Sandström, A., Rhodin, I. N., Lundberg, M., Olsson, T., & Nyberg, L. (2005). Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome. Biological Psychology, 69(3), 271–279. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.08.003
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7(2), 147–177. doi: 10.1037//1082-989X.7.2.147
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Kerwer, M., & Klein, A. (2014). Evaluation of model fit in nonlinear multilevel structural equation modeling. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–11.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00181
Schmeichel, B. J., Vohs, K., & Baumeister, R. F. (2003). Intellectual Performance and Ego Depletion: Role of the Self in Logical Reasoning and Other Information Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(1), 33–46. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.33
Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G., & Tang, C. (2000). Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross-cultural validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 13, 309–326. doi: 10.1080/10615800008549268
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14. doi: 10.2307/1175860
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 1029–1038. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2011.04.001
Statistisches Bundesamt (2014). Bildung und Kultur. Allgemeinbildende Schulen. [Education and culture. Secondary Schools]. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.
Sutton, R. E. (2005). Teachers' emotions and classroom effectiveness: Implications from recent research. The Clearing House, 78(5), 229–234. doi: 10.2307/30189914
Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers' emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327–358. doi: 10.1023/a:1026131715856
Swanson, H. L., O’Connor, J. E., & Cooney, J. B. (1990). An information processing analysis of expert and novice teachers’ problem solving. American Educational Research Journal, 27(3), 533–556. doi: 10.3102/00028312027003533
Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. G. W. C. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), 251–296. doi: 10.1023/a:1022193728205
Unterbrink, T., Hack, A., Pfeifer, R., Buhl-Grießhaber, V., Müller, U., Wesche, U., . . . Bauer, J. (2007). Burnout and effort–reward-imbalance in a sample of 949 German teachers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 80, 433–441. doi: 10.1007/s00420-007-0169-0
Van den Bogert, N., Van Bruggen, J., Kostons, D., & Jochems, W. (2014). First steps into understanding teachers' visual perception of classroom events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 208–216. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2013.09.001
Van der Linden, D., Keijsers, G. P. J., Eling, P., & Schaijk, R. V. (2005). Work stress and attentional difficulties: An initial study on burnout and cognitive failures. Work & Stress, 19(1), 23–36. doi: 10.1080/02678370500065275
Voss, T., Kunina-Habenicht, O., & Kunter, M. (2015). Stichwort Pädagogisches Wissen von Lehrkräften: Empirische Zugänge und Befunde [Teachers’ pedagogical knowledge: Empirical approaches and findings]. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft. doi: 10.1007/s11618-015-0626-6
Voss, T., Kunter, M., & Baumert, J. (2011). Assessing teacher candidates’ general pedagogical / psychological knowledge: Test construction and validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(4), 952–969. doi: 10.1037/a0025125
Voss, T., Kunter, M., Seiz, J., Hoehne, V., & Baumert, J. (2014). Die Bedeutung des pädagogisch-psychologischen Wissens von angehenden Lehrkräften für die Unterrichtsqualität [The impact of teachers’ general pedagogical and psychological knowledge on instructional quality]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 60(2), 184–201.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63(3), 249–294. doi: 10.3102/00346543063003249
Williford, A. P., Whittaker, J. E. V., Vitiello, V. E., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Children’s Engagement Within the Preschool Classroom and Their Development of Self-Regulation. Early Education and Development, 24, 162–187. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2011.628270
Wolff, C. E., van den Bogert, N., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2015). Keeping an eye on learning: differences between expert and novice teachers’ representations of classroom management events. Journal of Teacher Education, 66(1), 68–85. doi: 10.1177/0022487114549810