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Author Guidelines


Ornitologia Neotropical (ISSN 1075-4377) publishes high quality research on Neotropical birds. The journal has an emphasis on natural history but welcomes contributions from all aspects of avian biology. Reports of range extensions are only of interest for the journal if they have broad implications for Neotropical biogeography. In this regard single observations should either constitute noteworthy records for the whole region (e.g. first record for South America) or be accompanied by a thorough review of other records from the literature that provide support to the main thesis of the paper (e.g. a process of range expansion, etc.). First country records of species are better published in national journals.

Ornitologia Neotropical published two types of papers: normal full length papers and short communications. Short communications should not exceed six pages, without figures and tables.


Submitting a manuscript carries the implicit assumption that the work has not been previously published, that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and that all authors have read and approved the submission.




Manuscripts should be submitted in English and Spanish.

Write the manuscript on A4 paper leaving 25 mm margins. Double-space throughout, including tables, figure legends, and references. All pages, including tables and figure captions, should be numbered, starting with page 1. Insert continuous line numbers throughout the manuscript. These allow reviewers and editors to indicate the exact location of each comment or suggestion.


All parts of the manuscript should be arranged in the following sequence: title page, text with references, tables (each on a separate page), figure legends, figures. Do not hyphenate words at ends of lines. Do not right-justify the text. Leave only one space after each word or punctuation sign.


Use font ‘Calibri’ for the whole text.


Use italic characters instead of underlining words that must be italicized, e.g., scientific names of species. In addition, the following Latin terms or expressions should be italicized: fide, vice versa, sensu, in vivo, in vitro, in situ, ad libitum, a priori, a posteriori. Other Latin terms, except scientific names, should be left unitalicized. 


There are some differences between UK and USA spelling of some English words and in comma rules (e.g., enumerations); in both cases, use the USA rules. Authors not fluent enough in the language (Spanish, Portuguese, or English) of a given part of their manuscript (abstract or text) are urged to have these parts revised by somebody who can correct and polish their writings.



Manuscripts should be organized as follows: title page, abstract & keywords page, text, references, Tables, Figure legends, Figures.


TITLE PAGE (numbered as page 1, with items presented in the following sequence)



FIRST TITLE: in English, in BOLD CAPITAL letters (no period at the end). Always put the common name of species in the title (if appropriate), followed by the scientific name in parentheses (in italics, capitalized). If a common generic name is mentioned in the title, it must be followed by the scientific generic name in parentheses.


Author names: in bold capital and bold lowercase letters. If more than one address for authors, author names should be referred to their respective address by using a superscript lower case Arabic numeral (e.g. Smith1). No period after author names.


Author addresses: at the time research was carried out, in capital and lowercase letters, centered. Current addresses, if different, should also be indicated with a different superscript number. All addresses, if more than one, should be given a superscript Arabic numeral for referring to respective author. Put a period at the end of each address. Indicate the E-mail address of the corresponding author.


Running head: 36 characters or less, all caps. No dot or period at the end. Do not write running heads on each page. 



ABSTRACT PAGE (page 2, with sections presented in the following order)


Do not repeat the information given on title page.


Abstract. – in bold capital and bold lowercase letters, followed by the abstract text in capital and lowercase letters. Abstracts should not exceed 300 words for full length papers or 150 words for short communications.


Second title (in bold capital and bold lowercase letters) in Portuguese or Spanish is inserted between the abstract and the Resumo or Resumen. Capitalize first word of the second title; all other words should be lowercase except proper nouns.


Resumo/Resumen. A translation in Portuguese or Spanish of the Abstract. Assistance can be provided for authors not familiar with these languages.


Key words: the heading in bold capital and bold lowercase characters, followed by 5 to 7 key words in capital and lowercase characters. All key words will be in English only, for indexation purposes (e.g., BIOSIS, Zoological Records, etc.).



TEXT. With sections presented in the following order:



These headings should be left-justified and in all caps. Depending on the manuscript these headings can be omitted (e.g. short communications) or modified (e.g. RESULTS & DISCUSSION).


If appropriate, subtitles are placed at the start of a new paragraph and must be in bold (e.g.: Breeding of Buteo ventralis.)


Paragraph indentations: All paragraphs in the introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections, except the first one, must be indented.




All references or citations (except for papers in preparation) referred to in the text, tables and figure legends must be listed at the end of the text under the heading “REFERENCES”. Verify all bibliographic references with original sources, especially for author names, titles, years, journal titles, volume and page numbers, accents, spelling in language other than English. All references must be referred to in the text, tables, figure captions, etc. Documents in preparation are only mentioned as “in prep.” in the text, and do not appear in the reference list. We recommend using a reference manager (Mendeley, EndNote, etc.) to format references.


Citations in the text:


(Johnston 1988, Ali 1990, McNeil 1997)                                             In chronological order

(Nelson & McNeil 1981)

(McNeil 1991a, 1991b)

(McNeil 1991a, 1991b, 1996; Ouellet 1985, Rappole 1990)

(McNeil et al. 1975) [note et al. not in italics]

(McNeil in press)

(McNeil 1975: 175)                                                                    Cite a special page

According to McNeil & Rompré (1988), ...

McNeil & Rompré (1988) reported ...

(see McNeil 1997)

(fide McNeil 1997)


(McNeil in prep.)                                                                     Papers “in prep.” are not listed in the reference section


Reference format in reference list:

References should follow the following format for character types, punctuation, spaces, and indentations. Note: Use medium-long dashes (Alt+0150) to mark the interval in page (–) numbers (MS Word).


For articles in scientific journals: Journal names should be given in full. Examples:

Adamoli, J, E Sennhauser, JM Acero & A Rescia (1990) Stress and disturbance: vegetation dynamics in the Dry Chaco Region of Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17: 491–500.

McLaughlin, JD (1977) The migratory route of Cyclocoelum mutabile (Zeder) (Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) in the American Coot, Fulica americana (Gm.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 55: 274–279.

Poulin, B, G Lefebvre & R McNeil (1994) Characteristics of feeding guilds and variation in diets of bird species of three adjacent tropical sites. Biotropica 26: 187–198.

Rojas, LM, R McNeil, T Cabana & P Lachapelle (In press) Diurnal and nocturnal visual capabilities in shorebirds as a function of their feeding strategies. Brain Behavior and Evolution 58: – .

Thibault, M & R McNeil (1995) Predator-prey relationship between Wilson's Plovers and fiddler crabs in northeastern Venezuela. Wilson Bulletin 107: 73–80.


Reports: For reports, in addition to authors’ names, title and year, provide the publisher name in full length (do not use acronyms) and the city, state or province, or country where published. Examples:


CETESB (1991) Avaliação do estado de degradação dos ecossistemas da Baixada Santista. Companhia Estadual de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, São Paulo, Brazil.

Toresani, NI, HL López & SE Gómez (1994) Lagunas de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ministerio de la Producción de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Books and book chapters: For all books, in addition to authors’ names, title and year, provide the publisher's name, and the city, state or province, or country where published. Examples:


American Ornithologists’ Union (1998) Check-list of North American birds. 7th ed. American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C., USA.

Balzarini, MG, L Gonzalez, M Tablada, F Casanoves, JA Di Rienzo & CW Robledo (2008) Manual del usuario. Info-stat, versión 2008. Editorial Brujas, Córdoba, Argentina.

Boletta, P (1998) Clima. Pp 7–21 in Casas, R. (ed). Desmonte y habilitación de tierras en la región chaqueña semiárida. FAO, Santiago, Chile.

Cambell, B & E Lack (1985) A dictionary of birds. Poyser, Carlton, UK.

del Hoyo, J, A Elliott, & J Sargatal (1992) Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 1: Ostrich to ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Kear, J (1970) The adaptive radiation of parental care in waterfowl. In Poole, A (ed.). The birds of North America, no. 47. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Lack, D (1954) The natural regulation of animal numbers. Oxford Univ. Press, London, UK.

Matheu, E & J del Hoyo (1992) Family Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills). Pp. 472–506 in del Hoyo, J, A Elliott & J Sargatal (eds). Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 1: Ostrich to ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Meyer de Schauensee, R & WH Phelps Jr (1978) A guide to the birds of Venezuela. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Moore, J & NJ Gotelli (1990) A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of altered host behaviours: a critical look at the manipulation hypothesis. Pp. 193–229 in Barnard, CJ & JM Behnke (eds). Parasitism and host behavior. Taylor & Francis, London, UK.

Ralph, CJ, S Droege & JR Sauer (1995) Managing and monitoring birds using point counts: standards and applications. Pp. 161–169 en Ralph, CJ, S Droege & JR Sauer (eds). Monitoring bird populations by point counts. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-149, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Albany, California, USA.

Sallabanks, R & FC James (1999) American Robin (Turdus migratorius). In Poole, A & F Gill (eds). The birds of North America, No. 462. The birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Walsberg, GE (1983) Avian ecological energetics. Pp. 161–220 in Farner, DS, JR King & KC Parkes (eds). Avian Biology. Volume 7. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion (2015) Flora Argentina. Plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. Available from/Disponible de [Assessed 20 August 2015/Consultado el 20 de agosto de 2015].

Zar, J. H. (1999) Biostatistical analysis. 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.


Use “ed.” if only one editor name, and “eds” if more than one occurs.


Dissertations or Theses

Díaz, DOF (1993) Comparación de la disponibilidad diurna y nocturna de presas para aves limícolas, en el complejo lagunar de Chacopata, Edo. Sucre. Tesis de licenciatura, Univ. de Oriente, Cumaná, Venezuela.

Goater, CP (1989) Patterns of helminth parasitism in the Oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, from the Exe Estuary, England. Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Poulin, B (1992) Dynamique temporelle et spatiale de l’avifaune des milieux xériques du nord-est du Venezuela. Thèse de doctorat, Univ. de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Yorio, PM (1991) Relevos durante la incubación y deserción de nidos: sus efectos sobre el éxito reproductivo del Pingüino de Magallanes. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Use “M.Sc. thesis”,“Ph.D. thesis ”, “Ph.D. diss.”, “Tesis doctoral”, “Tesis de licenciatura”, Tesis de maestría”, and “Tesis de grado”, “Dissertação de mestrado” or “Tese de doutorado”.


Online citations

BirdLife International (2008) Leptotila conoveri. In: IUCN Red list of threatened species. Version 2009.1. Available at [Accessed 16 September 2009]

Gill, F & D Donsker (eds) (2010) IOC world bird names (version 2.5). Available at [Accessed 15 May 2011]



  • no comma before ‘ &’ in author names.
  • no period after initials or ed/eds
  • full names of journals, in italics;
  • book publisher with city and full name of federal states (USA/Mexico/Brazil)




Cite each Table and Figure in the text numbered using Arabic numbers (i.e. Table 1, Table 2, etc.; Figure 1, Figure 2) in order of appearance.

Each Table should be allocated a separate page, double-spaced throughout. Each Table should have a legend above it, intelligible without the need to refer to the text. Begin with “Table 1.”, and end legend with a period (.). Create tables using the table option in MS Word. Include horizontal lines above and below boxhead, and at the end of tables. Avoid using footnotes; instead, indicate references from legend to table body text by superscript numerals or asterisk (*).

Figure legends. Include all figures legends one after the other. As with Tables figure legends should be largely understandable without having to refer to the text. Begin Figure legends with “Figure 1.” And end legend with a period. Upon initial submission all figures should be inserted at the end of the document properly labeled. ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL encourages the judicious use of color in figures and also the inclusion of high quality color pictures depicting relevant aspects of the study species, habitats or methods. All figures included should be mentioned in the text. Upon acceptance we will request high quality figures as separate files for typesetting.





Use the European system of dating (e.g., 30 June 1998) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:00 h and 23:00 h), and refer to standard time (not daylight saving time). Specify that you refer to standard time (e.g., EST for Eastern Standard Time) at the first reference to time of day.




Write out numbers one to nine (e.g., five chicks, three samples) unless numbers are statistics or measurements (e.g., 7 mm, 6 months, 2 min), but use numerals for larger numbers (e.g., 15 chicks, 20 samples). If a number is in a series with at least one number being 10 or more, use numerals only (e.g., 7 males and 15 females).


Decimals are marked by the period (.) for English texts and comma (,) for Spanish or Portuguese texts. Use 50% not 50 percent (no space between number and %).



Please report statistics in full, including effects sizes and their associated standard errors (SE) or confidence intervals (e.g. 95% CI), also for non-significant results. Report sample sizes (N) and appropriate degrees of freedom (df). Use a reasonable number of digits after the decimal separator (2 to 4 make usually sense) and be consistent in their use. For very small p-values use p < 0.0001.


STATISTICAL ABBREVIATIONS OR FORMATS (meaning of each symbol indicated in [])

In all cases, respect the spacing as shown:

(mean = 8.23, SD = 2.3, N = 4)

(mean ± SD)

SD [standard deviation]

SE [standard error]

CV [coefficient of variation]

CI [confidence interval]

N [sample size]

r = [correlation coefficient]

R2 = [R square value]

rs = [Spearman Rank Correlation]

df [degrees of freedom]

t = or t-test [Student’s t-test]

G = 18.77

= –10.0 Use Alt + 0150 for the minus sign with word processors under Windows. There is no space between the minus (–) and the number.

(Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, H = 19.47, P < 0.002)

(F89,90 = 0.789, P = 0.57)

df = 70.0

Mann-Whitney U-test, U =


8–10: To mark any numerical interval, use (–) with Alt + 0150 in word processors under Windows.

The same applies to page numbers in references.




In all cases, respect the spacing as shown:

e.g., i.e.,

in litt.

vs (for versus)

a.s.l. (for “above sea level”) s.n.m. (para “sobre el nivel del mar”)

c. (for circa)

cf. (for confer)

“pers. com.” (e.g., McNeil pers. com.)

“pers. observ.”

“sensu” “sensu lato” (sensu Sibley & Ahlquist 1990)

 “prov.” or “Prov.”

Mun. (for “municipality” o “municipalidad”)

sp. or spp.

Indet. (for “indetermined” o “indeterminado”)

unpubl. (for “unpublished”)

in prep. (McNeil in prep.)

Approx. 56

20°C (No space; use Alt + 0176 for °)

86% (No space)

43°18’01”S or 43°25’23”N with “W” and “E” in all languages. Use “Alt + 248” for °, “Alt + 0147”

for “ and “Alt + 0148” for ”, “Alt + 0145” for ‘ and “Alt + 0146” for ’. There is no space between characters.

m m2 m3 cm2 cm3 mm mm2 mm3 km ha g kg

l (liter)

s (second) ms (millisecond) h (hour) min (minute) 10-min (with dash); however, do not abbreviate:

day, month, year

16-bit (with normal dash)

kHz Hz

Pa hPa

Fac. of (Faculty of ... ) Fac. de (Facultad de ....)



They must be written out in full length the first time the abbreviation is used in the text (e.g., “second-year (SY) birds”. ... We captured SY males between 10 May and 30 June.”) Minimize the use of such abbreviations. Do not usey symbols. Use “male” or “female” in all cases.



Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. Publishing in Ornitologia Neotropical has costs, and these are only partly covered by membership fees of the Neotropical Ornithological Society. 

    As a consequence, authors are required to pay US$70 for Research Papers (up to 8 printed pages) and US$50 for Short notes (up to 4 printed pages).

    Note that these are only estimates and exact page numbers will only be known after typesetting is complete. Extensive adaptations of final versions (e.g., concerning guidelines, stylistic shortcomings) will require extra costs. Alterations of galleys based on authors’ request (not due to editing) will be charged 5 $US per line.

    Members of the NOS can publish up to two papers per year at no cost (First Author only). Authors who do not have access to publication funds may request a waiver upon prelimiinary acceptance of the manuscript.

  2. Authors that submit a manuscript to Ornitologia Neotropical implicitly state (a) that the work has not been published, or is being considered for publication elsewhere, and (b) that all authors have read and approved the submitted manuscript.  

  3. The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format, and all figures and tables are included in the file. The details of ALL authors of the manuscript have been entered together with title and abstract.
  4. The names, affiliations and e-mail addresses of four potential reviewers have been provided in the Comments to the Editor text box below.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal. The manuscript includes line numbers.

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