Teachers' Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Principal Leadership Characteristics


  • Carolyn Hayward Clay County Schools
  • Matthew Ohlson University of North Florida




teacher self-efficacy, COVID teaching, school leadership, student achievement


The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary teachers rate their level of self-efficacy and to examine the characteristics of school leaders influencing teacher self-efficacy, including when teachers worked from home during the COVID-19 school shutdown. On the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), all 287 participating teachers rated their self-efficacy in the high or moderate range. On the Principal Rating and Ranking Scale (PRRS), teachers reported that Communication, Inspiring Group Purpose, Consideration, and Empowering Staff were the most important characteristics of leaders related to teacher self-efficacy. The teachers interviewed reported that Communication and Flexibility were their principals’ most supportive leadership characteristics during the COVID-19 school shutdown, and that areas for improvement were more Communication, Situational Awareness, and Modelling Instructional Expectations. This work gives district leaders a clearer understanding of practices, strategies, and behaviours they can implement to improve teacher self-efficacy, teacher practice, and student achievement.

Author Biography

Matthew Ohlson, University of North Florida

Assistant Professor, Educational Leadership Department of Leadership, School Counseling & Sport Management University of North Florida




How to Cite

Hayward, C. ., & Ohlson, M. (2023). Teachers’ Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Principal Leadership Characteristics. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 19(2), 26 pp. https://doi.org/10.22230/ijepl.2023v19n2a1291



Policy and Leadership