A Person-Centered Expectancy Motivation Model
Intrinsic, extrinsic, and Maslowian motivation (specifically, self-actualization) are synthesized to repurpose traditional expectancy theory (in which motivational force is a product of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy) to accommodate the subjective human experience. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are rationalized as a single theoretical construct in the context of self-actualization. Self-actualization is used to reformulate expectancy theory to describe motivational force as a product of the squares of the valence that a person associates with an outcome, and his/her perceived ability to achieve the outcome. Discussion centers on the relative power of motivational force, motivation as a uniquely person-centered phenomenon, and implications in path-goal leadership theory.
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