Main Article Content
This article analyzes how humanitarian and/or development organizations acting as intermediaries between scientists and vulnerable populations aim to make environmental changes visible while trying to meet local needs and demands for sustainable livelihoods. Based on an in-depth organizational case study in Southern Thailand, the research analyses the use of visualization tools to foster environmental knowledge and literacy while supporting both policymaking as well as citizen engagement. Drawing on insights from sociology of organizations, the study discusses the organizational reasons for the use of visualization tools, outlining the underlying coercive, mimetic and normative pressures that facilitate their proliferation in the context of environmental communication. The results show that both the participatory approach as well as the use of audiovisual and digital tools to communicate project goals and results have become indispensable and institutionalized tools in the organizational field of humanitarian and development aid. In this context, organizations have become intermediaries and translators between ‘climate risk’ scientists and ‘at risk’ people, thus, facilitating environmental communication. The results show that questions of trust and ownership of ideas play an important role in the context of livelihood related projects linked to climate change adaptation. In this context, not only does the style and content of communication, but also the relationship between the parties who communicate, have an impact upon the success or failure of managing options in climate change adaptation.
All articles published "open access" will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute. Permitted reuse under user licence CC-BY is defined as follows:
Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author’s honor or reputation.
Photographs, graphics, images, maps, diagrams and other figures each have their own separate copyright based on their source. Please check the source before copying these. Most graphics are fully copyrighted with “all rights reserved”, which means you need written permission from the author or owner to copy and re-use the graphic. Authors are responsible for obtaining from the copyright holder permission to reproduce any material for which copyright exists.
The publishers and editorial board wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in published items in VM are the sole responsibility of the contributors or advertisers concerned. The publishers and the editorial board accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any inaccurate or misleading date, opinion, or statement.
CARE International (no date a). URL: http://www.care-international.org/ (accessed on 2 April 2016).
CARE International (no date b). URL: http://careclimatechange.org/our-work/bcr-cc/ (accessed 19.03.2016).
Care International (no date c). URL: http://careclimatechange.org/publications/cvca-thailand/ (accessed 19 March 2016).
CARE International (2009). Climate vulnerability and capacity analysis Handbook. URL: http://careclimatechange.org/tool-kits/cvca/ (accessed on 2 April 2016).
CARE Deutschland-Luxemburg e.V. and Millus Animation (2014). MI’s Coastal Adventures. Video. URL: https://youtu.be/r2_FgNGH16Q (accessed on 2 April 2016).
CARE International (2013). Climate Change Strategy 2013-2105. URL: http://careclimatechange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/CAREClimateChangeStrategy2013_2015.pdf (accessed 2 April 2016).
DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1991). The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, Ill.: The University of Chicago Press, 63–82.
Eppler, M. J. & Aeschimann, M. (2009). A Systematic Framework for Risk Visualisation in Risk Management and Communication. Risk Management 11, 67-89.
European Union (EU) (no date a) URL: http://www.echo-visibility.eu (accessed 2 April 2016).
European Union (EU) (no date b) URL: http://www.echo-visibility.eu/above-standard-visibility-template/ (accessed 2 April 2016).
European Union (EU) (2013). Single Form Guidelines. Draft Document. (no longer available).
Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1977). The Population Ecology of Organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 929–964.
Helmer, M. & Hilhorst, D. (2006). Natural disasters and climate change. Disasters. 30(1), 1–4.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013). Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. URL: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_SPM_FINAL.pdf (accessed 27.08.2015).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Summary for Policymakers. Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. URL: http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/IPCC_WG2AR5_SPM_Approved.pdf (accessed 27.08.2015).
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) (no date), URL: http://www.ifrc.org/en/who-we-are/the-movement/ (accessed 2 April 2016).
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) (2013). World Disasters Report: Focus on Technology and the Future of Humanitarian Action, Geneva.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) (2007). How to Do a VCA: A Practical Step-by-Step Guide for Red Cross Red Crescent Staff and Volunteers, Geneva.
Kapborg, I., & Berterö, C. (2002). Using an interpreter in qualitative interviews: Does it threaten validity? Nursing Inquiry, 9(1), 52-56.
Kunz, M., Grêt-Regamey, A. & Hurni, L. (2011). Customised Visualisation of Natural Hazards Assessment Results and Associated Uncertainties through Interactive Functionality. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 38, 232–242.
Luhmann, N. (1989). Ecological Communication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Luhmann, N. (1991) . ‘Interaktion, Organisation, Gesellschaft. Anwendungen der Systemtheorie’. In N. Luhmann, Soziologische Aufklärung, vol. 2. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 9–20.
Meier, P. (2011). New Information Technologies and Their Impact on the Humanitarian Sector. International Review of the Red Cross 93: 1239–1263.
Meier, P. & Leaning, J. (2009). Applying Technology to Crisis Mapping and Early Warning in Humanitarian Settings. Working Paper Series, Cambridge.
Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1991). Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony. In W.
W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, Ill.: The University of Chicago Press, 41–62.
Minssen, H. (2012). Arbeit in der modernen Gesellschaft. Eine Einführung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
O'Brien, G., O'Keefe, P., Rose, J. & Wisner, B. (2006). Climate change and disaster management. Disaster, 30(1), 64–80.
Raks Thai (no date). URL: http://www.raksthai.org/new/news-events-detail.php?tr_id=181 (accessed 19 March 2016).
Raks Thai (2014a). Annexes BCR-CC Final Report (grey document).
Raks Thai (2014b). BCR-CC Communication and Visibility Activities (grey document).
Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre (2007). Climate Guide. The Hague: RCCC.
The author. (2015a). Climate Change and the International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement. Moving the Social - Journal of Social History and the History of Social Movements 5, 59–84.
The author (2015b). Communicating Climate Risks. A case study of the International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement. Journal of International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict 28(2): 130–8.
Ruth, F. (2012). Visualising Risk: The Use of Graphical Elements in Risk Analysis and Communications, Focal Report 9: Risk Analysis, Zurich.
Scherer, A.G. (2002). Kritik der Organisationstheorie oder Organisation der Kritik? – Wissenschaftstheoretische Bemerkungen zum kritischen Umgang mit Organisationstheorien, In A. Kieser (ed.), Organisationstheorien. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1–37.
Schneiberg, M., & Clemens, E. S. (2005). The Typical Tools for the Job: Research Strategies in Institutional Analysis. Sociological Theory, 24(3), 195–227.
Swedberg, R. (2009). Tocqueville as a Pioneer in Organization Theory. In P.S. Adler (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies. Classical Foundations. New York: Oxford University Press, 39–61.
Tocqueville, A. de (1835 and 1840). Democracy in America. Volume I and II. URL: https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/tocqueville/alexis/democracy/complete.html (accessed 27.08.2015).
Veil, S. R., Buehner, T. & Palenchar, M. J. (2011). A Work-In-Process Literature Review: Incorporating Social Media in Risk and Crisis Communication. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 19, 110–122.
YouTube (2015) URL: https://youtu.be/V1ZSlEoGyyg (accessed 2 April 2016).
Walgenbach, P., & Meyer, R. E. (Eds.) (2008). Neoinstitutionalistische Organisationstheorie. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Wang, L., Wang, G., & Alexander C. A. (2015). Big Data and Visualization: Methods, Challenges and Technology Progress. Digital Technologies 1(1), 33-38.
Weber, M. (1978) . Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie. Studienausgabe. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
Wendling, C., Radisch, J. & Jacobzone, S. (2014). The Use of Social Media in Risk and Crisis Communication, OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, No. 25, OECD Publishing, URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k3v01fskp9s-en (accessed on 18 August 2014).
Williamson, D. L., Choi, J., Charchuk, M., Rempel, G.R., Pitre, N., Breitkreuz, R., & Kushner, K.E. (2011). Interpreter-facilitated cross-language interviews: A research note. Qualitative Research, 11(4), 381-394.
World Humanitarian Summit (2016a) URL: www.worldhumanitariansummit.org (accessed on 2 April 2016).
World Humanitarian Summit (2016b). Natural disasters and climate change: managing risks and crises differently. High-level leaders’ roundtable. Core Responsibility Four of the Agenda for Humanity. URL: https://www.worldhumanitariansummit.org/file/522836/view/571411 (accessed on 2 April 2016).
Zer-Aviv, M. (2014). Disinformation Visualization: How to lie with datavis. URL: http://www.visualisingadvocacy.org/blog/disinformation-visualization-how-lie-datavis (accessed 15 April 2016).