The Impact of a Year-Long Professional Development on Teacher Self-Efficacy in Personal Writing and the Teaching of Writing


  • Guang-Lea Lee Old Dominion University
  • Terri Brodeur Western Governors University
  • Cherng-Jyh Yen Old Dominion University
  • Tian Luo Old Dominion University
  • Pauline Salim Muljana Old Dominion University


Long-term professional development (PD) initiatives are scant in the extant literature. This study examines the impact of a year-long, face-to-face teacher PD provided for teachers from a high-need elementary school to improve their personal writing and writing instruction. A mixed-methods approach was used to collect and analyze data primarily from pre- and post-surveys and interviews. Statistical analyses suggest that teachers’ self-efficacy toward writing instruction was improved, but not self-efficacy toward their personal writing. Various means of how the year-long teacher PD influenced their self-efficacy were demonstrated through qualitative analysis. Implications of conducting teacher PD on writing instruction were discussed.

Author Biographies

Guang-Lea Lee, Old Dominion University

Dr. Guang-Lea Lee is a professor of literacy education and director of the Tidewater Writing Project in the Department of Teaching and Learning at Old Dominion University.

Tian Luo, Old Dominion University

Dr. Tian Luo is an Associate Professor in the Instructional Design and Technology program at Old Dominion University.