• Oscar Gonzalez Department of Natural Sciences Emmanuel College Franklin Springs, Georgia USA http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8686-3119
  • Carolina Tovar Biodiversity Informatics and Spatial Analysis Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Samuel Pironon Biodiversity Informatics and Spatial Analysis Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew


Distribution, Geographic range, Peru, Species distribution modeling, Tropical dry forest, Tumbezia salvini, Vagrant


We report odd records in the southernmost range of the Tumbes Tyrant (Tumbezia salvini), a near-threatened species endemic of the Tumbesian region in Peru. We assessed whether these records could be considered geographically or ecologically marginal compared to the entire species distribution. By collecting occurrence records for the species and climatic information across its range and using multivariate analysis and species distribution models, we examined the position of the odd records across its geographical distribution and climatic niche, and its range dynamics in recent years. Our results show that the newly collected records are indeed found in geographically and climatically marginal situations.  In the recent years, the species has been reported to move upward at its upper range limit but not at its lower limit, which may suggest a relatively recent range expansion. However, sampling frequency of occurrence records also increased over time, which may imply a better recent detection of the species at both its geographical and environmental margins and therefore a possible misinterpretation of its recent past range dynamics. Finally, recent temperature trends do not indicate an overall warming in the region, which might discard the hypothesis that the odd records were due to a range shift caused by climate change. The dry forest in the Tumbesian region is under serious threat by human disturbance. Further appropriate monitoring of the Tumbes Tyrant across its range and ecological niche margins through time, will help evaluate its threat and subsequent conservation status.

Author Biography

Oscar Gonzalez, Department of Natural Sciences Emmanuel College Franklin Springs, Georgia USA

Biologist with a focus in Ornithology. Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary Ecology at the University of Florida, M.Sc. in Zoology at the Universidad Nacional Mayor of San Marcos (Peru), Master in Tropical Biodiversity Management at the Universidad San Pablo CEU (Spain), B.S.Biology at the Universidad Agraria La Molina (Peru).

I teach Biology at Emmanuel College in Georgia. My experience in research is in Ecology, censuses, reproduction, distribution, and inventories of bird species and bird communities in Peru.

My scope has been on the coast, high Andes, and rainforests of Peru and also outside this country. I have worked on several research projects directed and managed by myself, also in environmental impact assessments. I also have interest in the positive relationship of Science and Faith.

Currently, I am studying the role of birds in the pollination network in the high Andes; how nectarivorous birds (hummingbirds and flowerpiercers) are keystone species for the ecological integrity of the elfin forest in the western Amazon.


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