Field Effects, Experimenter Effects, and Bohm’s Implicate Order

George R Williams


In this paper I explore what Bohm’s implicate order might suggest with respect to understanding different facets of psi. In particular, I focus on the recent debate on interpreting the findings for the Global Coherence Project, where alternative explanations include a psi field effect and some version of goal oriented psi. This debate has recently received more attention with Bancel’s argument that XOR masking within the GCP network likely removes correlation between random number generator devices. After examining two specific studies, I focus on whether a psi field effect or a psi experimenter effect best explains the GCP findings. I advocate that an integrated approach that incorporates both field effects and experimenter effects as the best explanation. In addition, I argue that Bohm’s implicate order provides an attractive conceptual framework for such an integrative approach.


Consciousness, Physics

Full Text:



Bancel, P. (2011). Reply to May and Spottiswood’s “The GCP: Identifying the Source

of Psi.” Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25, 690-694.

Bancel, P.A. (2015). An Analysis of the Global Consciousness Project. In In Evidence

for Psi: Thirteen Empirical Research Reports. Edited by Damien Broderick and Ben Goertzel. North Carolina: McFarland and Company.

Bancel, P.A. (2016). Searching for Global Consciousness: A Seventeen Year


Bem, D.J. and Honorton, C. (1994). Does PSI exist? Replicable Evidence for

Anomalous Process of Information Transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 4-18.

Bem, D.J., J. Palmer, R.S. Broughton (2001). Updating the Ganzfeld Database: A

Victim of Its Own Success? Journal of Parapsychology, 65(3), 207-218.

Bem D., Tressoldi P., Rabeyron T. and Duggan M. (2016). Feeling the Future: A Meta-

analysis of 90 experiments on the Anomalous Anticipation of Random Future

Events. F1000Research 4, 1188.

Bohm, D. (1952). A Suggested Interpretation of Quantum Theory in Terms of

“Hidden Variables,” parts I and II. Physical Review 85, pp. 166-193.

Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the Implicate Order. London: Routledge.

Bohm, D. (1985). Unfolding Meaning: A Weekend of Dialogue. London: Routledge.

Bohm, D. (1990) A New Theory of the Relationship of Mind and Matter. Philosophical

Psychology, 3(2), 271-286.

Bohm, D. & Hiley, B. (1993). The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of

Quantum Theory. London: Routledge.

Bosch, H., Steinkamp F., Boller E. (2006). Examining psychokinesis: The interaction of human intention with random number generators—a meta-analysis.

Psychological Bulletin, 132, 497-523.

Crandall, J.E. (1985). Effects of Favorable and Unfavorable Conditions on the Psi-

Missing Displacement Effect. Journal of the American Society for Psychical

Research, 79, 27-38.

Jahn, R., B. Dunne, D. Nelson, Y. Dobyns, & G. Bradish (1997). Correlations of

Random Binary Sequences with Pre-Stated Operator Intention: A Review of a 12-Year Program. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 11(3), 345-367.

James, W. (1904). Does ‘Consciousness’ Exist? Journal of Philosophical, Psychology,

and Scientific Methods, 1, pp. 477-491.

Jahn, R. & B. Dunne. (2011). Consciousness and the Source of Reality. Princeton: ICRL


Mason, L.M., Patterson, R.P., and Radin, D. (2007). Exploratory Study: The Random

Number Generator and Group Meditation. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 21(2), pp. 295-317.

May, E. and Marwaha, S. (2015). A Refutation of the Dualist Perspective in Psi

Research. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 22(5-6), pp. 70-95.

May, E., and J. Spottiswoode. (2011). The Global Consciousness Project: Identifying

the Source of Psi. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 11(3), pp. 345-367.

Mossbridge, J., T. Patrizio, & J. Utts. (2012). Predictive Physiological Anticipation

Preceding Seemingly Unpredictable Stimuli: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Perception Psychology, 3, 390.

Nelson, R. (2008). The Emotional Nature of Global Consciousness. Paper for the Bial

Foundation 7th Symposium, March 2008.

Nelson, R.D. (2011). Reply to May and Spottiswood on experimenter effect as the

explanation for GCP results. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25, 683-689.

Nelson, R. (2016) Weighting the Parameters, a Response to Bancel’s “Searching for

Global Consciousness: A Seventeen Year Exploration,” Explore In Press.

Nelson, R. & P. Bancel. (2008). The GCP Event Experiment: Design, Analytical

Methods, Results. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22(3), 309-333.

Nelson, R., Bradish, G.J., Dobyns, Y.H., Dunne, B.J., & Jahn, R.G. (1996). FieldREG

Anomolies in Group Situations, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10(1), 111-141.

Nelson, R.D., Jahn, R.G., Dunne, B.J., Dobyns, Y.H. (1998). FieldREG: Consciousness

Field Effects: Replications and Explorations, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 12(3), 425-454.

Orme-Johnson, D. (2008). Truth About TM: Societal Effects. ex.cfm#summary.

Palmer, J. and Millar, B. (2015). Experimenter Effects in Parapsychological

Research. Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century. Edited by

Cardena, E., Palmer, J. and D. Marcusson-Clavertz. Jefferson, North Caroline:

McFarland and Company, Inc.

Pylkkanen, P. (2007). Mind, Matter, and the Implicate Order. Springer.

Radin, D. (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena.

Harper Collins Publishers. New York.

Radin, D. (2002). “Exploring the Relationships Between Physical Events and Mass

Human Attention: Asking for Whom the Bell Tolls. Journal of Scientific

Exploration, 16(4), pp. 533-548.

Radin, D.I. (2006). Entangled minds: Extrasensory experiences in a quantum reality.

New York: Paraview Pocket Books.

Radin, D., Nelson, R., Dobyns, Y., Houtkooper, J. (2006). Reexamining psychokinesis: Commentary on the Bosch, Steinkamp and Boller meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 529-532.

Scargle, Jeffrey (2002). Was There Evidence of Global Consciousness on September

, 2001? Journal of Scientific Exploration, 16(4), pp. 571-577.

Schmeidler, G.R. and Maher, M. (1981). Judges’ Responses to the Nonverbal

Behavior of Psi-conducive and Psi-inhibitory Experimenters. Journal of the

American Society for Psychial Research, 75, 241-254.

Sherwood S. & C. Roe. (2003). A Review of Dream ESP Studies Conducted Since the

Maimonides Dream ESP Programme. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10(6-7). 85-109.

Utts, J.M. (1996). An Assessment of the Evidence for Psychic Functioning, Journal of

Scientific Exploration, 10(1), 3-30.

Williams, G.R. (2013). Psi and the Problem of Consciousness. Mind and Behavior. 34(3,4), pp. 259-284.

Williams, G.R. (2016). What Can Consciousness Anomalies Tell Us about Quantum Mechanics? Journal of Scientific Exploration. 30(3), pp. 326-354.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Follow @mindmattermaps