# Radical Nonlocality

## Keywords:

Quantum Mechanics, Interpretation (Quantum Theory), Nonlocality, Space, Time, Ultimate Reality, Fundamental Particles, Sri Aurobindo, Ontology, Metaphysics## Abstract

This article points out a nonlocality of quantum mechanics that is significantly more radical than that implied by violations of Bell locality or Einstein locality. It consists in the fact that the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world is incomplete. The so-called parts of space only exist to the extent that they are physically realized, and arbitrarily small parts cannot be physically realized. Further it is shown that intrinsically all fundamental particles are identical in the radical sense of numerical identity. Hence it is impossible to model reality "from the bottom up," whether on the basis of an intrinsically and completely differentiated space or spacetime or out of a multitude of intrinsically distinct building blocks. Quantum theory's explanatory arrow points in the opposite direction — from unity to multiplicity. In addition to establishing these conclusions, the article examines their implications for the enterprise called physics, illuminates these conclusions and their implications in a quintessential Indian philosophical context, and points out that while the radical nonlocality of the quantum world renders intelligible the possibility of paranormal correlations, quantum mechanics offers no help in explaining how paranormal phenomena come about.## References

Bell, J. (1964). On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Physics, 1, 195–200.

Bouwmeester, D., Pan, J. W., Daniell, M., Weinfurter, H., & Zeilinger, A. (1999). Observation of three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement, Physical Review Letters, 82, 1345−1349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1345

Conway, J., and Kochen, S. (2006). The free will theorem. Foundations of Physics, 36, 1441–1473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10701-006-9068-6

DeWitt, B.S., & Graham, R.N. (1971). Resource letter IQM-1 on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, American Journal of Physics, 39, 724–738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.1986273

Einstein, A. (1948). Quantenmechanik und Wirklichkeit. Dialectica, 2, 320–324.

Einstein, A., Podolsky, B., & Rosen, N. (1935). Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? Physical Review, 47, 777–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.47.777

Feynman, R.P., Leighton, R.B., & Sands, M. (1965). The Feynman Lectures in Physics, Vol. 3. (Sec. 1–1) Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Greenberger, D.M., Horne, M., & Zeilinger, A. (1989). Going beyond Bell’s theorem. Bell’s Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, edited by M. Kafatos. (pp. 73–76). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Jammer, M. (1974). The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. (pp. 68–69). New York: Wiley.

Kaiser, D. (2011). How the hippies saved physics: Science, counterculture, and the quantum revival. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Kant, I. (1929). Critique of Pure Reason. (A:25) Translation by N.K. Smith. London: Macmillan.

Kochen, S., & Specker, E. (1967). The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 17, 59–87.

Landau, L.D., & Lifshitz, E.M. (1977). Quantum Mechanics, 3rd Edition. (p. 3) Oxford: Pergamon.

Mermin, N.D. (June 1990). What's wrong with these elements of reality? Physics Today, 43, 9–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2810588

Mermin, N.D. (May 2009). What's bad about this habit? Physics Today,62, 8–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3141952

Misner, C.W., Thorne, K.S., & Wheeler, J.A. (1973), Gravitation. San Francisco: Freeman.

Mohrhoff, U. (2002). Why the laws of physics are just so. Foundations of Physics, 32 (8), 1313–1324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019727521587

Mohrhoff, U. (2006). Is the end in sight for theoretical pseudophysics?. New Topics in Quantum Physics Research, edited by V. Krasnoholovets & F. Columbus. (pp. 37–58). New York: Nova Science. http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0305095

Mohrhoff, U. (2007). The quantum world, the mind, and the cookie cutter paradigm,. AntiMatters, 1 (1), 55–90. http://anti-matters.org/articles/5/public/5-5-1-PB.pdf

Mohrhoff, U. (2009a). Quantum mechanics explained. International Journal of Quantum Information, 7 (1), 435–458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219749909004487

Mohrhoff, U. (2009b). Objective Probability and Quantum Fuzziness. Foundations of Physics, 39, 137–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10701-008-9266-5

Mohrhoff, U. (2011). The world according to quantum mechanics: Why the laws of physics make perfect sense after all. Singapore: World Scientific. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/9789814293389_fmatter

Newton, I. (1729). The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Translation by A. Motte. London: Benjamin Motte.

Petersen, A. (1968). Quantum physics and the philosophical tradition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Redhead, M. (1987). Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism. Oxford: Clarendon.

Sri Aurobindo (2005). The Life Divine. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publication Department.

Von Neumann, J. (1955). Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Von Weizsäcker, C.F. (1980). The Unity of Nature. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Whitehead, A.N. (1997/1925). Science and the Modern World. (p. 51). New York: Free Press (Simon & Schuster).

## Downloads

## Published

## Issue

## Section

## License

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).