Islamist Indoctrination: Exploring the Techniques Used by Hizb Ut-Tahrir to Radicalize Young British Muslims
Keywords:Indoctrination, Islamism, Hizb ut-Tahrir (The Liberation Party), Ethnomethodology and Radicalization.
Trying to generate ethnographic data to study Islamist groups in a natural setting has always presented a problem for researchers seeking to comprehend the radicalization process. Islamist groups operate in a clandestine manner, making it difficult to penetrate their inner workings. The researcher was given access to the inner workings of Hizb ut-Tahrir, a clandestine radical Islamist organization. Having accessed the group, the paper seeks to present an account of the methods used by Hizb ut-Tahrir to indoctrinate new members to its ideology and activist orientation. The personal narratives obtained from this ethnographic fieldwork are placed into a frame of reference related to how indoctrination occurs within Hizb ut-Tahrir. My access to Hizb ut-Tahrir put me in the unique position of being able to gather the biographical information required to study indoctrination. As the findings show, Hizb ut-Tahrir indoctrination is a narrow cognitive process that has distinct behavioral outcomes.
Al-Nabhani, Taqi al-Din (2002a) Islamic State (Al-Khilafah Publications: London)
Al-Nabhani, Taqi al-Din (2002b) Al-Takattul al-Hizbi (The Party Structure) (Al-Khilafah Publications: London)
Al-Nabhani, Taqi al-Din. (2002c) Nidham al-Islam (The System of Islam) (Al-Khilafah Publications: London)
Amer, M., and Awad, G. (2015) Handbook of Arab American Psychology (Routledge: New York)
Appelbaum, R. P., Carr, D., Duneir, M., Giddens, A. (2009) ‘Conformity, Deviance, and Crime’ Introduction to Sociology, New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Anon. (1998) Hizb ut-Tahrir (Al-Khilafah Publications: London)
Burgess, R. B. (2002) In the Field, An introduction to Field Research (London: Allen and Unwin)
Cicchetti, D., and Cohen, D. (2006) Developmental Psychopathology, Theory and Method (Wiley and Sons: New Jersey).
Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2008) Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe: The potential contribution of socio-psychological and psychological approaches (Danish Institute for International Studies)
Engel, S.M. (2001) The Unfinished Revolution: Social Movement Theory and the Gay and Lesbian Movement (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)
Garfinkel, H. (1991) Respecification: Evidence for locally produced, naturally accountable phenomena of order, logic, reason, meaning, method (In G. Button (ed.) Ethnomethology and the Human Sciences, Cambridge University Press)
Gawronski, B., and Bodenhausen, G. (2015) Theory and Explanation in Social Psychology (The Guilford Press: London)
Gawronski, B., and Payne, K. (2011) Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Applications (The Guilford Press: London)
Gobo, Giampietro., and Molle, Andrea (2016). Doing Ethnography (SAGA Publishers, New York)
Hassan, Steven. (2001) Releasing the Bonds: Empowering People to Think for Themselves
Hafez, M., and Mullins, C (2015) 'The radicalization puzzle: a theoretical synthesis of empirical approaches to homegrown extremism', Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 38 (11), p. 971.
Jamie Bartlett & Carl Miller (2012): The Edge of Violence: Towards Telling the Difference Between Violent and Non-Violent Radicalization, Terrorism and Political Violence 24(1):1-21
Koomen, W., and Pligt, J (2015) The Psychology of Radicalization and Terrorism (Routledge: New York).
Kennedy, L., and McGarrell, E. (2012) Crime and Terrorism Risk: Studies in Criminology and Criminal Justice (Routledge: New York)
Knutson, Jeanne N. (1973) Handbook of Political Psychology (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass)
Kurtz, Lester R., and Turpin, Jennifer. (1999) Encyclopaedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, (Elsevier Academic Press).
Le Bon, Gustave. (2012) The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (Dover Publications, New York).
Meissner, W. W. (1981), Internalization in Psychoanalysis (International Universities Press, New York)
Noakes, John A. (2000) Official Frames in Social Movement Theory: The FBI, HUAC, and the Communist Threat in Hollywood (The Sociological Quarterly 41(4): 657-680)
Pargeter, A., (2006) ‘North African Immigrants in Europe and Political Violence’. 29 Studies on Conflict and Terrorism731.
Pisoiu, Daniela. (2011) Islamist Radicalization in Europe: An Occupational Change Process (Routledge, New York).
Popplestone, J. A. and McPherson, M. W. (1999) An Illustrated History of American Psychology, Greenwood Press: New York.
Post, Jerrold M. ‘The Group Dynamics of Terrorist Behaviour’, (International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 36, No. 2, 1986)
Rambo, L., and Farhadian, C. (2014) The Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion (Oxford University Press: Oxford)
Sageman, Marc. (2016) Misunderstanding Terrorism (University of Pennsylvania Press: Pennsylvania).
Shaw, Eric D. (1986) Political Terrorists: Dangers of Diagnosis and an Alternative to the Psychopathology Model (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 8, 1986, 359-68)
Sherif, M., and Sherif, C. W. (1969) Social Psychology (Int. Rev. Ed.). New York: Harper and Row
Snook, I. (2010) Concepts of indoctrination (Routledge: London)
Snow, D., and Byrd, S. (2007) Ideology, Framing processes, and Islamic terrorist movements. Mobilization. 12, 119-136.
Stump, J., and Dixit, P. (2013) Critical Terrorism Studies: An Introduction to Research Methods (Routledge: New York).
Taji-Farouki, Suha. (1996) A fundamental quest (Grey Seal: London)
Tajfel, H & Turner, J. C. (1979) An Integrative theory of inter-group Conflict (In W. G. Austin and S. Worchel, The social psychology of inter-group relations, Monterey, CA: Brooks)
Turner, J. C. (1991) Social influence (Open University Press: Buckingham)
Valle, R., and Eckartsberg, R. (2012) Metaphors of Consciousness (Springer: New York)
Wali, F (2013) Radicalism Unveiled (Ashgate Publications)
Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005) Radical Islam Rising: Muslim extremism in the West, (Rowman and Littlefield Publishers: Oxford).
Wiktorowicz, Q. (2004) Islamic activism: a social movement theory approach, (Indiana University Press: Indiana).
The JD Journal for Deradicalization uses a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) Licence. You are free to share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following conditions:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, andindicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.