Conference Note: Offline Exclusion, Online Inclusion?


  • Tessa Cuppens Leiden University


Radicalisation, Extremism, Far Right, Online, Offline, Exclusion, Inclusion


On April 14, 2022, the DRIVE project (Determining multilevel-led causes and testing intervention designs to reduce radicalisation, extremism and political violence in North-Western Europe through social inclusion) workshop was an opportunity for academics specialising in violent extremism to discuss the role of online spaces, such as social media platforms, in radicalisation towards extremist attitudes. Academics Dr Bharath Ganesh (University of Groningen), Dr Ashton Kingdon (University of Southampton), and Dr Eviane Leidig (Tilburg University) shared their insights during this workshop. These three scholars explored questions about the disconnect between online and offline worlds in relation to questions on extremism. The consideration of what exclusion in the offline world means for inclusion in the online world is particularly important, as it allows us to track how issues in the offline world can create impacts in the online world, such as violence – and vice versa. Therefore, this conference note explores the relationship between offline and online experiences of exclusion, and how these interact. This conference note sums up the key takeaways of this workshop for researchers and practitioners who work within the fields of radicalisation and violent extremism.


The DRIVE project has received its funding from the European Union’s H2020 Research and Innovation Actions programme under grant agreement No 959200.


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Conference Notes