Resilience as a protective factor against violent extremism: a systematic review of systematic reviews
Keywords:Resilience, Protective Factors, Systematic Review, Violent Extremism
Violent extremism (VE) threatens global security. Efforts to counter VE have focused on identifying factors that pull and push toward extremism. However, identifying individual and community qualities that buffer against VE remains insufficient and needs improvement. This review aimed to identify links between resilience and VE. A systematic review of systematic reviews (SR-SR) using the Campbell Collaboration review methodology was conducted. A 5-stage search of 12 databases yielded 17 systematic reviews with more than 2800 records. After evaluation by two reviewers using the AMSTAR appraisal tool, only nine systematic reviews received a high rating and were analyzed. Seven reviews identified clear and direct protective resilience factors against VE. The protective resilience factors were categorized as (1) individual resilience factors, (2) family resilience factors, and (3) community resilience factors. Community resilience as a theme of resilience appeared more frequently within the reviewed literature encompasses community engagement, collective identity, social support networks, and emotional orientation. The study provided insights linking resilience as a buffer to VE. This evidence will enable policymakers and preventing violent extremism efforts to mobilize and strengthen community resilience.
This research was funded by Naif Arab University for Security Science (NAUSS-SRC-21-02)
Ellis, H., & Abdi, S. (2017). Building community resilience to violent extremism through genuine partnerships. American Psychologist, 72(3), 289–300. https://doi.org/10.1037/AMP0000065
Ellis, H., Abdi, S., Lazarevic, V., White, M. T., Lincoln, A. K., Stern, J. E., & Horgan, J. G. (2016). Relation of psychosocial factors to diverse behaviors and attitudes among Somali refugees. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 86(4), 393–408. https://doi.org/10.1037/ORT0000121
Eltayeb, S., Abbas, W., Masmoudi, S., Jefferies, P., & Alsafrani, M. (2022). Resilience to Violent Extremism: Validation of the Arabic BRAVE Measure. Journal for Deradicalization, (32), 192-218.
Frank, C., & Reva, D. (2016). Preventing violent extremism: South Africa’s place in the world. In Policy Brief - Institute for Security Studies (Issue 95).
Gielen, A.-J. (2019). Countering Violent Extremism: A Realist Review for Assessing What Works, for Whom, in What Circumstances, and How? Terrorism and Political Violence, 31(6), 1149–1167. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2017.1313736
Grossman, M. (2021). Resilience to Violent Extremism and Terrorism. In M. Ungar (Ed.), Multisystemic Resilience (pp. 293–317). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190095888.003.0017
Hassan, G., Brouillette-Alarie, S., Alava, S., Frau-Meigs, D., Lavoie, L., Fetiu, A., Varela, W., Borokhovski, E., Venkatesh, V., Rousseau, C., & Sieckelinck, S. (2018). Exposure to Extremist Online Content Could Lead to Violent Radicalization: A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence. International Journal of Developmental Sciences, 12(1–2), 71–88. https://doi.org/10.3233/DEV-170233
Johns, A., Grossman, M., & McDonald, K. (2014). “More than a game”: The impact of sport-based youth mentoring schemes on developing resilience toward violent extremism. Social Inclusion, 2(2), 57–70. https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v2i2.167
Ledogar, R. J., & Fleming, J. (2008). Social Capital and Resilience: A Review of Concepts and Selected Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Youth Resilience Research. Pimatisiwin, 6(2), 25. /pmc/articles/PMC2956751/
Lietz, C. A., Julien-Chinn, F. J., Geiger, J. M., & Hayes Piel, M. (2016). Cultivating Resilience in Families Who Foster: Understanding How Families Cope and Adapt Over Time. Family Process, 55(4), 660–672. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12239
Lösel, F., King, S., Bender, D., & Jugl, I. (2018). Protective Factors Against Extremism and Violent Radicalization: A Systematic Review of Research. International Journal of Developmental Sciences, 12(1–2), 89–102. https://doi.org/10.3233/DEV-170241
Masten, A. S. (2015). Pathways to Integrated Resilience Science. Psychological Inquiry, 26(2), 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1080/1047840X.2015.1012041
Masten, A. S. (2016). Resilience in developing systems: the promise of integrated approaches. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(3), 297–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2016.1147344
McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2017). Understanding political radicalization: The two-pyramids model. American Psychologist, 72(3), 205–216. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000062
McCubbin, H. I., & McCubbin, M. A. (1988). Typologies of Resilient Families: Emerging Roles of Social Class and Ethnicity. Family Relations, 37(3), 247. https://doi.org/10.2307/584557
McEwen, B. S., Gray, J. D., & Nasca, C. (2015). Recognizing resilience: Learning from the effects of stress on the brain. In Neurobiology of Stress. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2014.09.001
Mikhail, J. N., Nemeth, L. S., Mueller, M., Pope, C., & NeSmith, E. G. (2018). The social determinants of trauma: A trauma disparities scoping review and framework. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 25(5), 266–281. https://doi.org/10.1097/JTN.0000000000000388
Misiak, B., Samochowiec, J., Bhui, K., Schouler-Ocak, M., Demunter, H., Kuey, L., Raballo, A., Gorwood, P., Frydecka, D., & Dom, G. (2019). A systematic review on the relationship between mental health, radicalization and mass violence. European Psychiatry, 56, 51–59. http://10.0.3.248/j.eurpsy.2018.11.005
Neumann, P. R. (2013). The trouble with radicalization. International Affairs, 89(4), 873–893. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12049
Onyx, J., & Bullen, P. (2016). Measuring Social Capital in Five Communities: Https://Doi.Org/10.1177/0021886300361002, 36(1), 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886300361002
Ozalp, M., & Ćufurović, M. (2021). Religion , Belonging , and Active Citizenship : A Systematic. Religions, 12, 237–263.
Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimshaw, J. M., Hróbjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., McDonald, S., … Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: An updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 134, 178–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2021.03.001
Panter-Brick, C. (2015). Culture and Resilience: Next Steps for Theory and Practice. In L. Theron, L. Liebenberg, & M. Ungar (Eds.), Youth Resilience and Culture (pp. 233–244). Springer, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9415-2_17
Rolland, J. S., & Walsh, F. (2006). Facilitating family resilience with childhood illness and disability. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 18(5), 527–538. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mop.0000245354.83454.68
Sarma, K. M. (2017). Risk assessment and the prevention of radicalization from nonviolence into terrorism. American Psychologist, 72(3), 278–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/AMP0000121
Shea, B., Bouter, L. M., Peterson, J., Boers, M., Andersson, N., Ortiz, Z., Ramsay, T., Bai, A., Shukla, V. K., & Grimshaw, J. M. (2007). External validation of a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR). PLoS ONE, 2(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001350
Shea, B., Hamel, C., Wells, G. A., Bouter, L. M., Kristjansson, E., Grimshaw, J., Henry, D. A., & Boers, M. (2009). AMSTAR is a reliable and valid measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(10), 1013–1020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.10.009
Sherrieb, K., Norris, F. H., & Galea, S. (2010). Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience. Social Indicators Research 2010 99:2, 99(2), 227–247. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11205-010-9576-9
Smith, V., Devane, D., Begley, C. M., & Clarke, M. (2011). Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11, 11–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-15
Smith, V., Devane, D., M Begley, C., & Clarke, M. (2011). Methodology in conducting a systematic review of biomedical research. Medical Reasearch Methodology, 1(1), 61–73. https://www.academia.edu/11851983/Una_propuesta_metodológica_para_la_conducción_de_revisiones_sistemáticas_de_la_literatura_en_la_investigación_biomédica._Methodology_in_conducting_a_systematic_review_of_biomedical_research_
Stephens, W., Sieckelinck, S., & Boutellier, H. (2021). Preventing Violent Extremism: A Review of the Literature. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 44(4), 346–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1543144
Taylor, L., & Soni, A. (2017). Preventing radicalisation: a systematic review of literature considering the lived experiences of the UK’s Prevent strategy in educational settings. Pastoral Care in Education, 35(4), 241–252. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643944.2017.1358296
Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across Cultures. The British Journal of Social Work, 38(2), 218–235. https://doi.org/10.1093/BJSW/BCL343
Ungar, M. (2016). Varied Patterns of Family Resilience in Challenging Contexts. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 42(1), 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/JMFT.12124
Ungar, M. (2018). Systemic resilience: principles and processes for a science of change in contexts of adversity. Ecology and Society, 23(4). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10385-230434
Ungar, M., Theron, L., Murphy, K., & Jefferies, P. (2020). Researching Multisystemic Resilience: A Sample Methodology. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 607994. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.607994
Walsh, F. (2016). Applying a Family Resilience Framework in Training, Practice, and Research: Mastering the Art of the Possible. Family Process, 55(4), 616–632. https://doi.org/10.1111/FAMP.12260
Weine, S. (2012). Building resilience to violent extremism in Muslim diaspora communities in the United States. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1080/17467586.2012.699085, 5(1), 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/17467586.2012.699085
Welch, M. R., Rivera, R. E. N., Conway, B. P., Yonkoski, J., Lupton, P. M., & Giancola, R. (2005). Determinants and Consequences of Social Trust*. Sociological Inquiry, 75(4), 453–473. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1475-682X.2005.00132.X
Wimelius, M. E., Eriksson, M., Kinsman, J., Strandh, V., & Ghazinour, M. (2018). What is Local Resilience Against Radicalization and How can it be Promoted? A Multidisciplinary Literature Review. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1531532
Wolfowicz, Michael, Yael Litmanovitz, David Weisburd, and Badi Hasisi. 2019. "A Field-Wide Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Putative Risk and Protective Factors for Radicalization Outcomes." Journal of Quantitative Criminology (December). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-019-09439-4
Zheng, P., Gray, M. J., Duan, W. J., Ho, S. M. Y., Xia, M., & Clapp, J. D. (2020). An Exploration of the Relationship Between Culture and Resilience Capacity in Trauma Survivors. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 51(6), 475–489. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022120925907
Copyright (c) 2022 Slim Masmoudi, Wijdan Abbas, Shahla Eltayeb
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The JD Journal for Deradicalization uses a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) Licence. You are free to share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following conditions:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, andindicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.