What role do French society and its education system play in promoting violent radicalization processes?

Arianne Maraj, Dilmurat Mahmut, Ratna Ghosh

Abstract


Radicalization is a complicated phenomenon, which is caused by multiple factors, including poor housing, low education, and unemployment, according to a study by the French Institute of International Relations (Hecker, 2018; Macaluso, 2016). France has a high number of radicalized terrorists, most of whom are homegrown, often with strong cultural ties to former French colonial countries in North Africa (IFRI, 2018). This paper aims to illustrate how social exclusion and marginalization created and perpetuated by the inequalities in the French society and education system (Bourdieu, 1971; Croizet et al, 2019; Goodman 2019; Jetten et al., 2020; Vanten, 2016), may be contributing to the radicalization of many young French citizens.  This push factor could be a key precondition for radicalization in many Western societies (Ghosh et al., 2016). While critiquing the French education system, this study insists that schools can and must create a sense of connection with their students and construct resilient and inclusive communities (da Silva, 2017, Ghosh et al., 2017; OECD, 2012). Finally, some pedagogical approaches, especially care in education, are suggested for educational institutions and school agents to effectively build a sense of belonging among young students that would enhance their resilience against radicalization.


Keywords


Radicalization; Marginalization; French Society; Elitism; Discrimination; Inequality; Secularism; Education; Muslims; Community

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afsaruddin, A. (2015, November 17). Is Islam incompatible with Modernity? The Conversation. Retrieved September 19, 2019 from http://theconversation.com/is-islam-incompatible-with-modernity-48727.

Agence France Presse (AFP). (2015, January 16). Taubira veut renforcer les sanctions contre

le racisme et l’antisémitisme. Le Huffington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2019

from https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/2015/01/16/christiane-taubira-sanctions-racisme-antisemtisme_n_6488680.html

Alam, M. M. (2013). Banking Model of Education in Teacher-Centered Class: A Critical Assessment. Retrieved May 12, 2019 from https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/RHSS/article/view/7939

Anderson, C. B. (2013). A Review of “Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland?” Educational Studies, 49(4), 373–377.

Andre, V., Mansouri, F. & Lobo, M. (2015). A Fragmented Discourse of Religious Leadership in France: Muslim Youth between Citizenship and Radicalization. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 35(2), 296-313. DOI 10.1080/13602004.2015.1046743

Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review. (Special Issue on Evil and Violence), 3, 193-209.

Bandura, A. (2002). Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency. Journal of Moral Education, 31(2), 101-119.

Batrawy, A., Dodds. P. & Hinnant, L. (2016, August 15). ‘Islam for dummies’: IS recruits have poor grasp of faith. AP News, Retrieved March 8, 2019 from https://apnews.com/9f94ff7f1e294118956b049a51548b33

BBC News. (2018, November 30). French MPs vote to ban child smacking. Retrieved March 6, 2020 from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-46397087

Beaman, J. (2017). Citizen Outsider: Racism, Marginalization, and Immigration in France

Metropolitics. Retrieved April 4, 2020 from https://www.metropolitiques.eu/Citizen-Outsider-Racism.html

Benavides, A.D., Alhumaid, S.M. & Quainoo, E.D. (2011). Counterterrorism and perspectives on cultural competency and representation. In S. Ekici (Ed.). Counter terrorism in diverse communities (pp. 197–216). IOS Press.

Berry, M., Garcia-Blanco, I. & Moore, K. (2016). Press Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Crisis in the EU: A Content Analysis of Five European Countries (Report prepared for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees). Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies. Retrieved April 4, 2020 from https://www.unhcr.org/56bb369c9.pdf

Bhui, K., Dinos, S. and Jones, E. (2012). Psychological process and pathways to radicalization. Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, S5:003, 1–5. doi:10.4172/2157-2526.S5-003.

Breeden, A. (2015, March). France Is Rebuked Over Corporal Punishment by Parents. The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2020 from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/05/world/europe/france-faulted-for-not-banning-corporal-punishment.html

Breeden, A. (2019, October 19). Another Hijab Furor Hits France, Over a Mother on a School Trip. The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2020 from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/19/world/europe/france-hijab-school-trip-mother.html

Bourdieu, P. (1971). Reproduction culturelle et reproduction sociale. Social Science Information, 10(2), 45–79. Retrieved October 2, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1177/053901847101000203

Bourdieu, P. (1992). La misère du monde. Seuil.

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society, and culture (1990 ed). Sage in association with Theory, Culture & Society, Dept. of Administrative and Social Studies, Teesside Polytechnic.

Brunner, A. & Maurin, L. (2019) (Eds.), Rapport sur les inégalités en France. Observatoire des inégalités. Retrieved September 19, 2020 from https://www.inegalites.fr/Rapport-sur-les-inegalites-en-France-edition-2019?id_theme

Caeiro, A. (2004, June 11). Muslim youth in France: Typologies of religious belonging and sociocultural dynamics. International Conference Muslim Youth in Europe., Edoardo Agnelli Centre for Comparative Religious Studies, Turin. Retrieved 5 May, 2019 from http://www.cestim.it/argomenti/02islam/02islam-caero-torino.pdf

Canadian Council on Learning. (2010). State of Learning in Canada: A Year in Review, 2009-2010. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council on Learning. Retrieved February 3, 2019 from www.ccl-cca.ca/solr

Chapoulie, J.-M. (2017). Schooling in France: From Organizational to Informal Inequality. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 673(1), 235–250. Retrieved October 8, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716217724751

Chhor, K. (2016, December). French students most affected by social inequality, OECD finds. France 24. Retrieved February 3, 2019 from https://www.france24.com/en/20161207-french-students-most-affected-socioeconomic-disadvantages-oecd-pisa-study

Chiu, M. M., & Khoo, L. (2005). Effects of resources, inequality, and privilege bias on achievement: Country, school, and student level analyses. American Educational Research Journal, 42(4), 575–603.

Chrisafis, A. (2015, January 12). Charlie Hebdo attackers born, raised and radicalised in Paris. The Guardian. Retrieved February 3, 2019 from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/12/-sp-charlie-hebdo-attackers-kids-france-radicalised-paris

Conseil National d'Evaluation du Système Scolaire - Cnesco (2018). Écrire et rédiger : un bilan scientifique et 10 recommandations phares. Retrieved April 8, 2020 from http://www.cnesco.fr/fr/ecrire-et-rediger-un-bilan-et-10-recommandations-phares/

Conseil National d'Evaluation du Système Scolaire – Cnesco (2015). Rapport d’activité 2015

Ministre de l’Education Nationale. Retrieved April 8, 2020 from http://www.cnesco.fr/fr/tag/rapport/

Cosnefroy, O. & Rocher, T. (2007, June). Le redoublement au cours de la scolarité obligatoire. Syndicat national des enseignements de second degré. Retrieved July 12, 2020 from https://www.snes.edu/IMG/pdf_SNES_29juin2007.pdf

Cragin, R. K. (2017). The November 2015 Paris Attacks: The Impact of Foreign Fighter Returnees. Orbis, 61(2), 212–226. Retrieved January 20, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orbis.2017.02.005

Croizet, J-C., Autin, F., Goudeau, S., Marot, M., & Millet, M. (2019). Education and social class: Highlighting how the educational system perpetuates social inequality. In J. Jetten & K. Peters (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Inequality. (pp. 139–152) New York: Springer.

D’Appollonia, A. C. (2016). Chapitre 2. Du discours de Dakar à l’affaire Taubira. La Découverte. Retrieved July 12, 2020 from https://www.cairn.info/vers-la-guerre-des-identites--9782707188120-page-59.htm

Debenedetti M.-C.C. (2018), La lutte contre les discriminations ethno-raciales en France:

De l’annonce à l’esquive (1998-2016), PUR. Les cahiers de la LCD, 9(1), 132–136.

Delahaye, J. (2019, March). Comment l’élitisme social est maquillé en élitisme républicain. Observatoire des inégalités. Retrieved July 12, 2020 from https://www.inegalites.fr/Comment-l-elitisme-social-est-maquille-en-elitisme-republicain

De Silva, S. (2017). Role of education in the prevention of violent extremism. Worldbank Documents. Retrieved May 7, 2019 from https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/448221510079762554/120997-WP-revised-PUBLIC-Role-of-Education-in-Prevention-of-Violence-Extremism-Final.pdf

Doosje, B., Moghaddam, F. M., Kruglanski, A. W., de Wolf, A., Mann, L. & Feddes, A. R. (2016). Terrorism, radicalization and de-radicalization. Current Opinion in Psychology, 11,79–84.

Doosje, B., Loseman, A., & Bos, K. (2013). Determinants of radicalization of Islamic youth in the Netherlands: Personal uncertainty, perceived injustice, and perceived group threat. Journal of Social Issues, 69(3), 586-604.

Downie, R. (2019, July). 3 economic challenges France in 2019. Investopedia. Retrieved August 9, 2020 from

https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/012416/3-economic-challenges-france-faces-2016.asp

Dubet, F. (2015). Injustice at work. Routledge. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315633947

Duffy, A. & Harley, M. (2015, February 7). From JMag to Jihad John: The radicalization of John Maguire. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/from-jmag-to-jihad-john-the radicalization-ofjohn-maguire.

Duru‐Bellat, M. (2008). Recent trends in social reproduction in France: Should the political promises of education be revisited? Journal of Education Policy, 23(1), 81–95. Retrieved May 8, 2019 from https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930701754104

Duru-Bellat, M. (2015). Access to higher education: the French case. Les Documents de Travail de l’IREDU Working Papers. Institut de Recherche sur l’Éducation Sociologie et Économie de l’Éducation. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01103597/document

Education International. (2018). France: Education is no longer a priority for the government. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from https://ei-ie.org/en/detail/15972/france-education-is-no-longer-a-priority-for-the-government

Elgot, J., (2015, February 20). Police appeal for three schoolgirls from top London school who are headed to Syria. Huffington Post UK. Retrieved March 9, 2019 from http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2015/02/20/ schoolgirls-syria_n_6720352.html

El Karoui, H. (2016). A French Islam is possible. Institute Montaigne. Retrieved March 9, 2019 from https://www.institutmontaigne.org/ressources/pdfs/publications/a-french-islam-is-possible-report.pdf

Fenstermacher, G. D., & Richardson, V. (2010). What’s wrong with accountability? Teachers College Record. Retrieved March 9, 2019 from http://www.tcrecord.org (ID No. 15996).

France24 (2019) French students still affected by social inequality despite egalitarian “façade.” (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2020 from https://www.france24.com/en/20191203-french-students-still-affected-by-social-inequality-despite-egalitarian-fa%C3%A7ade

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary ed). New York: Continuum.

French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) (2018). 137 shades of terrorism. French jihadists before the courts. Retrieved July 4, 2019 from https://www.ifri.org/en/publications/etudes-de-lifri/focus-strategique/137-shades-terrorism-french-jihadists-courts.

Gardner, H. (1983), Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books.

Ghosh, R. (2020). The emerging area of education and security. In A. Abdi (Ed.). Critical

theorizations of education. Leiden/Boston: Brill/Sense. 73-86.

Ghosh, R., Manuel, A., Chan, W. Y. A., Dilimulati, M. & Babaei, M. (2016) Education & security: A Global literature report on countering violent religious extremism (CVE). Tony Blair Faith Foundation.

Ghosh, R., Chan, W. A., Manuel, A., & Dilimulati, M. (2017). Can education counter violent religious extremism? Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 23(2), 117-133.

Giry, S. (2006). France and Its Muslims. Foreign Affairs, 85(5), 87–104. JSTOR. https://doi.org/10.2307/20032072

Gomes, C. (2019, Décembre). La France et PISA: peut mieux faire. Weblog. Retrieved September 5, 2020 from https://www.institutmontaigne.org/publications/education-0

Goodman, P. S. (2019, April 15). Inequality fuels rage of “Yellow Vests” in equality-obsessed France. The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2020 from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/15/business/yellow-vests-movement-inequality.html

Gouvernement.fr. (2017). Refonder l’ecole. Le décrochage scolaire. Retrieved September 5, 2020 from https://www.gouvernement.fr/action/le-decrochage-scolaire

Gumbel, P. (2010). On achève bien les écoliers. Grasset.

Hafez, M. & Mullins, C. (2015) The radicalization puzzle: A theoretical synthesis of empirical approaches to homegrown extremism, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(11), 961-62.

Hamm, M. S. (2013). The Spectacular Few: Prisoner Radicalization and the Evolving

Terrorist Threat. NYU Press.

Hancock, L. (2011). Why are Finland’s schools successful? Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/why-are-finlands-schools-successful-49859555/

Harkness, S., Blom, M., Oliva, A., Moscardino, U., Zylicz, P. O., Bermudez, M. R., … Super, C. M. (2007). Teachers’ ethnotheories of the ‘ideal student’ in five western cultures. Comparative Education, 43(1), 113–135.

Harpviken, A. N. (2020). Psychological vulnerabilities and extremism among Western youth: A literature review. Adolescent Research Review, 5,1–26.

Harris-Hogan, S. (2017, March). Violent extremism in Australia: An overview. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. 491. Australian Government and Australian Institute of Criminology.

Harris-Hogan, S., Barrelle, K., & Smith, D. (2019). The role of schools and education in countering violent extremism (CVE): Applying lessons from Western countries to Australian CVE policy. Oxford Review of Education, 45(6), 731–748. Retrieved March 20, 2020 from https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2019.1612343

Hecker, M. (2018). 137 shades of terrorism. French Jihadis before the courts. IFRI Security Studies Center. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from https://www.ifri.org/en/publications/etudes-de-lifri/focus-strategique/137-shades-terrorism-french-jihadists-courts

Hecker, M. (2021, February). Once a jihadist, always a jihadist? A Deradicalization Program Seen from the Inside. Focus Stratégique, No. 102 bis, The French Institute of International Relations (Ifri) Retrieved March 9, 2021 from https://www.ifri.org/en/publications/etudes-de-lifri/focus-strategique/once-jihadist-always-jihadist-deradicalization

Hecker, M. & Tenenbaum, E. (2017). France vs. jihadism: The republic in a new age of terror. Ifri Security Studies Center. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/hecker_tenenbaum_france_vs_jihadism_2017.pdf

Hooks, B. (2014). Teaching to transgress. Routledge.

Huey, L. (2015). This is not your mother’s terrorism: social media, online radicalization and the practice of political jamming. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2), 1-16.

Hussey, A. (2019, November 17). Uncertainty, inequality, fragility: Why France is a country at war with itself | Andrew Hussey. The Guardian. Retrieved July 5, 2020 from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/nov/17/uncertainty-inequality-fragility-france-at-war-with-itself-gilets-jaunes-charlie-hebdo

IMFBlog. (2017). The Fruits of Growth: Economic Reforms and Lower Inequality. Retrieved June 4, 2019 from IMF Blog website: https://blogs.imf.org/2017/01/26/the-fruits-of-growth-economic-reforms-and-lower-inequality/

International, E. (2019). France: Education is no longer a priority for the government. Retrieved April 6, 2020 from Education International website: https://ei-ie.org/en/detail/15972/france-education-is-no-longer-a-priority-for-the-government

Institut Montaigne. (2019). Education blog. La France et PISA: peut mieux faire. Retrieved May 6, 2020 from: https://www.institutmontaigne.org/publications/education-0

Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (Insee). (2015). 2015 Annual Report. Retrieved July 4, 2019 from https://www.insee.fr/en/information/2404445

Irish, J. & Pineau, E. (2015). France must tackle “social and ethnic apartheid”: PM. Reuters. Retrieved July 4, 2019 from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-shooting-apartheid/france-must-tackle-social-and-ethnic-apartheid-pm-idUSKBN0KT1FZ20150120

Jackson, R. (2012). Religious education and the arts of interpretation revisited. In I. ter, Avest (Ed.), On the edge: (Auto)biography and pedagogical theories on religious education, (pp. 57-68). Sense Publishers.

Jamal, A. & Naber, N. (2008), Race and Arab Americans before and after 9/11: From invisible citizens to visible subjects. Syracuse University Press.

Jarraud, F. (2017). Que sait -on du redoublement ? Le Cafe Pedagogique. Retrieved July 4, 2019 from http://www.cafepedagogique.net/lexpresso/Pages/2017/05/31052017Article636318135577270612.aspx

Jetten, J., Mols, F., & Selvanathan, H. P. (2020). How Economic Inequality Fuels the Rise and Persistence of the Yellow Vest Movement. International Review of Social Psychology, 33(1), 2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/irsp.356

Jourdan, S. (2016). Association de la Fondation Étudiante pour la Ville (p. 24). Retrieved October 7, 2019 from www.afev.org

Juergensmeyer, M. (2000). Terror in the mind of god: the global rise of religious violence. University of California Press.

Kelley, B. & Morgenstern, A. (2006). The elephant in the room: Unexposed roots of Islamic radicalism in the Netherlands. Humanity in Action. Retrieved October 7, 2019 from https://www.humanityinaction.org/knowledgebase/185-the-elephant-in-the-room-unexposed-roots-of-islamic-radicalism-in-the-netherlands

Koehler, Daniel (2014). The Radical Online: Individual Radicalization Processes and the Role of the Internet. Journal for Radicalization. 15(1), 116-134.

Koomen, W. & van der Pligt, J. (2016). The psychology of radicalization and terrorism. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Kruglansky, W.A. & Webber, D. (2014). The psychology of radicalization [online]. Retrieved June 4, 2019 from: http://www.zis-online.com/dat/artikel/2014_9_843.pdf

Kundnani, A. (2014). The Muslims are coming! Islamophobia, extremism, and the domestic war on terror. London and New York: Verso.

Kymlicka, W. (2015). The three lives of Multiculturalism. In S. Guo & L. Wong (Eds.), Revisiting multiculturalism in Canada: Theories, policies, and debates. (pp. 17-36). Sense Publication: Rotterdam.

Laborde, V., Silhol, G., (2018). The Intertwining of Laïcité and Ethnicity: Observations from Teachers’ Practices in State Schools in Provence. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 10(3), 58-81. doi: 10.14658/pupj-ijse-2018-3-4

Lagarde, C. (2017). The fruits of growth: Economic reforms and lower inequality. IMF Blog

Retrieved May 2, 2019 from https://blogs.imf.org/2017/01/26/the-fruits-of-growth-economic-reforms-and-lower-inequality/

Lapostolle, G., & Chevaillier, T. (2011). Teacher training in France in the early 2010s. Journal of Education for Teaching, 37(4), 451–459.

Laurence, J. & Vaïsse, J. (2005). Understanding urban riots in France. Brookings. Retrieved March 8. 2019 from https://www.brookings.edu/articles/understanding-urban-riots-in-france/

Layard, R. & Dunn, J. (2009). A good childhood: Searching for values in a competitive age. Penguin.

Lenglet, F. (2020, October 26). Un rapport de l’Institut Montaigne démonte les idées reçues sur les quartiers pauvres. RTL.fr. Retrieved March 3, 2021 from https://www.rtl.fr/actu/economie-consommation/un-rapport-de-l-institut-montaigne-demonte-les-idees-recues-sur-les-quartiers-pauvres-7800911034

Lévi-Strauss, C. (2014). L’anthropologie face aux problèmes du monde moderne. Seuil.

Linden, A. & Klandermans, B. (2006). Stigmatization and repression of extreme-right activism in the Netherlands. Mobilization. An International Quarterly, 11(2), 213–228.

Louati, L. B. W. Y. (n.d.). LE BREAKDOWN With Yasser Louati - Blacks, Arabs, Yellow Vests: French Tales of Police Brutality. Google Podcasts. Retrieved March 2, 2021 from https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hbmNob3IuZm0vcy8xZTU5M2E0NC9wb2RjYXN0L3Jzcw/episode/OWE5ZjRmMjUtNzIxMy00YWZiLTg2MWQtOGRiNTQwMWZiYjcw

Lyons-Padilla, S., Michele J. G., Mirahmadi, H., Farooq, M. & van Egmond, M. (2015) Belonging nowhere: Marginalization & radicalization risk among Muslim immigrants. Behavioral Science & Policy 1 (2), 1-12

Macaluso, A. (2016). From countering to preventing radicalization through education: Limits and opportunities. Working paper series: Working Paper, 18. The Hague Institute for Global Justice. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from http:// www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/ Countering-Preventing-Radicalization-Education.pdf

Mandel, D. R. (2009). Radicalization: What does It Mean? In T. M. Pick, A. Speckhard, B. Jacuch (Eds.). Home-grown terrorism: Understanding and addressing the root causes of radicalization among groups with an immigrant heritage in Europe, (pp. 101-113). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Marmouyet, F. (2020, February 8). French govt study reveals minorities face discrimination for jobs at major firms. France 24. Retrieved March 2, 2021 from https://www.france24.com/en/20200208-french-govt-study-reveals-minorities-face-discrimination-for-jobs-at-major-firms

McCauley, C. & Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of Political Radicalization: Pathways Toward Terrorism,” Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(3),415-433.

Meirieu, P. (2012). Un pédagogue dans la Cité. Eyrolles.

Meirieu, P. (2018). Le choix d’éduquer: Éthique et pédagogie. ESF Sciences Humaines.

Ministère de l’Éducation nationale Enseignement Supérieur Recherche. (2005). Le redoublement au cours de la scolarité obligatoire: Nouvelles analyses, mêmes constats. Paris. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from http://educ-eval.pleiade.education.fr/pdf/dossier166/dossier166.pdf

Ministère de l’Éducation nationale et de la Jeunesse (MEN). (2014, 2015). Les chiffres clés du système éducatif—Année 2014-2015. Ministère de l’Éducation nationale et de la Jeunesse. Retrieved May 5, 2019 from https://www.education.gouv.fr/cid109996/les-chiffres-cles-du-systeme-educatif-annee-2014-2015.html&xtmc=brevet&xtnp=22&xtcr=218

Moore, D. (2006). Overcoming religious illiteracy: a cultural studies approach. World history connected, 4(1). Retrieved March 4, 2019 from https://rlp.hds.harvard.edu/files/hds-rlp/files/whc.pdf.

Mosavi, S. (2014, May 8). The Learning Curve. The Economist. Retrieved May 3, 2019 from https://eiuperspectives.economist.com/talent-education/learning-curve-2014

Mucha, W. (2017). Polarization, stigmatization, radicalization, counterterrorism and homeland security in France and Germany, Journal of Deralicalization, 10,230-247.

Musial, J. (2016). “My Muslim sister, indeed, you are a mujahidah” - Narratives in the propaganda of the Islamic State to address and radicalize Western Women. An Exemplary analysis of the online magazine Dabiq. Journal for Radicalization. 9, 39-100.

Neumann, P. R. (2017). Countering violent extremism and radicalisation that lead to terrorism: Ideas, recommendations, and good practices from the OSCE region. International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ICSR), King’s College London. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from https://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/ICSR-Report-Countering-Violent-Extremism-and-Radicalisation-that-Lead-to-Terrorism-Ideas-Recommendations-and-Good-Practices-from-the-OSCE-Region.pdf

Noddings, N. (1984) Caring: A feminine approach to ethics & moral education. University of California Press.

Noddings, N. (1988). An ethic of caring and its implications for instructional arrangements. American Journal of Education, 96(2), 215–230.

Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. Teachers College Press,

Noddings, N. (2002). Starting at home caring and social policy. University of California Press.

Observatoire national de l’action sociale décentralisée (ODAS). (2013). La place de la Maltraitance dans les politiques publiques de protection de l’enfance: La France mise en perspective européenne. Retrieved September 8, 2019 from www.fondation-enfance.org,

OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 Results: Executive Summary. 21. Retrieved May 12, 2019 from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/46619703.pdf

OECD. (2012). Equity and Quality in Education OECD. Retrieved May 12, 2019 from https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264130852-en

OECD. (2014). The definition and selection of key competences Executive Summary. Retrieved May 12, 2019 from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/35070367.pdf

OECD. (2015). Note par pays. Resultat du PISA 2015, France. Retrieved May 12, 2019 from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/PISA-2015-France-FRA.pdf

OECD. (2018). Country Note. Results from PISA 2018, France. Retrieved May 12, 2019 from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/publications/PISA2018_CN_FRA.pdf

Onishi, N., & Méheut, C. (2020, October 26). A Teacher, His Killer and the Failure of French Integration. The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2021 from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/26/world/europe/france-beheading-teacher.html

Opinionway. (2014). Société—Opinionway. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from https://www.opinion-way.com/fr/sondage-d-opinion/sondages-publies/opinion-societe/societe.html?layout=columns&start=150

Ostinelli, G. (2009). Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. European Journal of Education, 44(2), 291–308.

Packer, G. (2015, August 24). The Other France: Are the suburbs of Paris incubators of terrorism? The New Yorker. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/08/31/the-other-france

Peretti, C. (2003). Le traitement de la difficulté scolaire. Education et Formations, (66), 23–38.

Pfundmair, M. (2019) Ostracism promotes a terroristic mindset, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 11,2, 134-148, DOI: 10.1080/19434472.2018.1443965

Picard, F., Xenos, A. & Laurain, J. (2020, October 19). The Debate - Age of intolerance? Outrage in France after beheading of schoolteacher. France 24. Retrieved March 2, 2021 from https://www.france24.com/en/tv-shows/the-debate/20201019-age-of-intolerance-outrage-in-france-after-beheading-of-school-teacher

Piketty, Thomas. (2013). Le Capital au XXIe siècle. Retrieved April 5, 2019 from http://www.seuil.com/ouvrage/le-capital-au-xxie-siecle-thomas-piketty/9782021082289

Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674369542

Piketty, T., Krugman, P. & Stiglitz, J. (2015). The genius of economics. Panel Discussion at 7 Days of Genius festival. MSNBC. Retrieved April 5, 2019 from https://vimeo.com/129894198

Piketty, T. (2017, October 21). Budget 2018: French youth sacrified. Retrieved April 5, 2019 from https://www.lemonde.fr/blog/piketty/2017/10/21/budget-2018-french-youth-sacrified/

Pilgrim, S. (2015, February 10). Poverty and injustice feeding terrorism, French minister says. France24. Retrieved March 4, 2019 from https://www.france24.com/en/20150210-poverty-injustice-feed-terrorism-france-taubira-justice-minister

Rawls, J. (2001). Justice as fairness: A restatement. Harvard University Press.

Rémond, R. (1999) Religion and Society in Modern Europe, Antonia Nevill (Translator), Blackwell Publishers.

Roy, O. (2007). Secularism confronts Islam. Columbia University Press.

Riele, K. (2006). Youth ‘at risk’: Further marginalizing the marginalized? Journal of Education Policy, 21(2), 129–145.

Rubin, G. (2018). Breaking the prison-jihadism pipeline: Prison and religious extremism in the war on terror. In K. R. Kerley (Ed.). Finding freedom in confinement: The role of religion in prison life (pp.292-323). CA: Praeger.

Sahlberg, P. (2013). The most wanted: Teachers and teacher education in Finland. In Teacher education around the world (pp. 15–35). Routledge.

Saito, N. T. (2001). Symbolism under siege: Japanese American redress and the racing of Arab Americans as terrorists. Asian American Law Journal Volume 8(1), 1-29. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/

Samuel, T.K. (2012). Reaching the youth: Countering the terrorist narrative. Kuala Lumpur: Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT).

Sklad, M., & Park, E. (2017). Examining the potential role of education in the prevention of radicalization from the psychological perspective. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 23(4), 432-437. doi:10.1037/pac0000258

Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (1997). A social capital framework for understanding the socialization of racial minority children and youths. Harvard Educational Review, 67, 1–40.

Stephane J. Baele, Gregorio Bettiza, Katharine A. Boyd & Travis G. Coan. (2019). ISIS’s clash of civilizations: Constructing the “West” in terrorist propaganda, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2019.1599192

Silberman, R., Alba, R., & Fournier, I. (2007). Segmented assimilation in France? Discrimination in the labour market against the second generation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(1), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870601006488

Stern, J. (2016). The Middle East and regional transition, terrorism, and countering violent extremism: What the next president will face. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 668, 102-117.

Sylvester, R. (2011). Teacher as bully: Knowingly or unintentionally harming students. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 77(2), 42-45.

Theriault, J., Krause, P., & Young, L. (2017). Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(3), 305-317. doi:10.1037/xge0000261

Thomas Piketty, Paul Krugman and Joseph Stiglitz: The Genius of Economics. (2016). Retrieved March 2, 2019 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TycmHxXgEIg

The Economist. (2020, Jan. 23). France admits its police are too violent. The Economist. Retrieved March 4, 2021 from https://www.economist.com/europe/2020/01/23/france-admits-its-police-are-too-violent

Truong, F. (2018). Radicalized loyalties: Becoming Muslim in the West. Archambault. Retrieved April 2, 2019 from https://www.archambault.ca/livres/radicalized-loyalties-becoming-muslim-in-the-west/truong-fabien/9781509519354/?id=2608781&cat=

UNESCO. (2015). Éducation à la citoyenneté mondiale Thèmes et objectifs d’apprentissage. Paris. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000233240

Valadares, H. (2019, December 3). French students still affected by social inequality despite egalitarian ‘façade.’ France 24. Retrieved May 3, 2020 from https://www.france24.com/en/20191203-french-students-still-affected-by-social-inequality-despite-egalitarian-fa%C3%A7ade

Vallaud-Belkacem, N. (2015a) Mobilisation de l’École pour les valeurs de la République. Retrieved May 8, 2019 from https://actualites.ecoledeslettres.fr/education/mobilisation-de-lecole-pour-les-valeurs-de-la-republique-discours-de-najat-vallaud-belkacem-22-janvier-2015/

Vallaud-Belkacem, N. (2015b). Un ennui… bien ennuyeux, La vie moderne. Retrieved May 8, 2019 from https://www.laviemoderne.net/detox/130-un-ennui-bien-ennuyeux

Vallaud-Belkacem, N. (2014). Audition par l’Observatoire de la Laïcité – Discours de la ministre. Retrieved May 8, 2019 from https://www.najat-vallaud-belkacem.com/2014/10/31/audition-par-lobservatoire-de-la-laicite-discours-de-la-ministre/

Volpp, L. (2002). Citizen and the terrorist, UCLA Law Review 49(5), 1575-1600.

Weitzmann, M. (n.d.). A rising tide of violence in France. Retrieved March 9, 2021 from

https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2021/02/11/terror-after-charlie-hebdo/

Zanten, A. V. (2005). New Modes of Reproducing Social Inequality in Education: The Changing Role of Parents, Teachers, Schools and Educational Policies: European Educational Research Journal, 4(3),155-169 https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2005.4.3.1

Zaretsky, R. (2016, July 6). France’s perpetual state of emergency. Foreign Policy. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/07/16/frances-perpetual-state-of-emergency/


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Arianne Maraj, Dilmurat Mahmut, Ratna Ghosh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and indexed by SCOPUS.