Letting Go: De-radicalization in Egypt


  • Zeynep Kaya Gedik University, Istanbul, Turkey


The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

Author Biography

Zeynep Kaya, Gedik University, Istanbul, Turkey

Assist. Prof. Dr, Department of International Relations, Gedik University, Istanbul, Turkey


Berger, C. (1993-03-15). A war without mercy. The Economist .

Ashour, O. (2010). De-Radicalization of Jihad? The Impact of Egyptian Islamist Revisionists on Al Qaeda. Retrieved 03-08-2016, from Terrorism Analysts: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/36

Ashour, O. (2008). De-radicalization of Jihad? The Impact of Egyptian Islamist Revisionists on Al Qaeda. Perspectives on Terrorism .

Ashour, O. (2007). Lions Tamed? An inquiry into causes of de-radicalization of the Islamic group. Middle East Journal , 596-97.

Bjorgo, T. a. (2008). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement. London: Routlege.

Bjorgo, T. (2006). Reducing Recruitment and Promoting Disengagement from Extremist Groups: The Case of Racist Sub Cultures. RAND Corporation. California: RAND Corporation.

Bjorgo, T. (2009). Reducing Recruitment and Promoting Disengagement from Extremist Groups: The case of racist sub cultures. Santa Monica, California: Rand Corporation.

Clubb, G. (2015). De-radicalization, disengagement and the attitudes-behavior debate. In C. e. Kennedy, Terrorism and Political Violence. London: Sage.

Davis, P. K. (2009). RAND ORG. Retrieved 08-08-2015, from RAND National Defense Research Institute: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG849.pdf

Drevon, J. (2015). Assesing Islamist Armed Groups' Deradicalization in Egypt. Peace Review, 296-303.

El-Said, H. (2012, 01). De-Radicalising Islamists: programmes and their impact in Muslim Majority States. Retrieved 03 10, 2016, from http://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1328200569ElSaidDeradicalisation1.pdf

Gunaratna, R. a. (2009). De-Radicalization Initiatives in Egypt: A Preliminary Insight. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 277-291.

Gerges, F. (2005). The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Horgan, J. (2008). Deradicalization and Disengagement? A process in need of Clarity and a counterterrorism Iniative in need of Evaluation. Perspectives on Terrorism, 3-8.

Juergensmeyer, M. (2001). Terror in the Mind of God. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Kruglanski, A. G. (2012). Aspects of Deradicalizaiton. Retrieved 03-08-2016, from Institute for the Study of Asymmetric Conflict: http://www.asymmetricconflict.org/articles/aspects-of-deradicalization/

Lynch, M. (2016-03-07). Is The Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization or a firewall against violent extremism? The Washington Post .

Mc Cauley, C. (2008). Group desistance from terrorism: A Dynamic Perspective. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict , 269-293.

Noricks, D. M. (2009). Disengagement and Deradicalization: Processes and Programs. Social Science for counterterrorism: Putting the Pieces Together. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation.

Rabasa, A. a. (2010). Deradicalizing Islamist Extremists. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

Silke, A. (2011-01-01). Disengagement or Deradicalization: A look at prison programs for jailed terrorists. Retrieved 03-08-2016, from CTC Sentinel: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/disengagement-or-deradicalization-a-look-at-prison-programs-for-jailed-terrorists

Silke, A. e. (2011). The Psychology of Counterterrorism. Oxon: Routledge.

The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy. (2015). Ajnad Mısr. Retrieved 09-13-2015, from The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy: http://timep.org/esw/profiles/terror-groups/ajnad-misr/

U.S. Department of State. (2015-06-01). Country Reports on Terrorism 2014. Retrieved 10-31-2015, from U.S. Department of State: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

U.S. Department of State. (2015-07-20). Country Reports on Terrorism 2015. Retrieved 09-13-2015, from U.S Department of State: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2014/239407htm

U.S. Department of State. (2005). Country Report of Terrorism 2005. Retrieved 03-07-2016, from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/65462.pdf

Wheatley, J. a. (2008). Losing Your Audience: Desistance From terrorism in Egypt after Luxor. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict , 1 (3), 250-268.

World news connection. (1997-11-30). Egypt: Mubarak's Advisor on Peace, terrorism, Iraq. World news connection.