Fighting Back: The Atomwaffen Division, Countering Violent Extremism, and the Evolving Crackdown on Far-Right Terrorism in America

Jacob Ware

Abstract


The early months of 2020 brought an intense and persistent crackdown on neo-Nazi terrorist groups in the United States, with both traditional arrests and new legislations increasing the pressure on a range of organizations, primarily the Atomwaffen Division and the Base. This article assesses the effectiveness of these measures, analyses remaining gaps, and concludes by arguing that the enduring focus on terrorist “organizations” will miss the lone actors that typically perpetrate attacks, and that effective and sustained counterterrorism success moving forward will therefore require longer-term, better-funded, whole-of-society deradicalization and countering violent extremism programming, which so far has been largely ignored in America’s countering far-right terrorism toolkit. The American far-right’s ideology exists largely due to conspiracy theories demonizing Jews, Muslims, African Americans, and liberals; deterring terrorism in our synagogues, mosques, churches, and supermarkets will require a new approach, founded on breaking down those conspiracy theories and ensuring that vulnerable individuals are no longer drawn in by hateful and pernicious ideologies.


Keywords


Atomwaffen Division; Countering Violent Extremism; United States; Far-Right Terrorism

Full Text:

PDF

References


“Against Violent Extremism,” http://www.againstviolentextremism.org/, accessed April 27, 2020.

“Atomwaffen and the SIEGE parallax: how one neo-Nazi’s life’s work is fueling a younger generation,” Southern Poverty Law Center, February 22, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.splcenter.org/hatewatch/2018/02/22/atomwaffen-and-siege-parallax-how-one-neo-nazi%E2%80%99s-life%E2%80%99s-work-fueling-younger-generation.

“Atomwaffen Division Member Pleads Guilty to Firearms Charge,” U.S. Department of Justice, Eastern District of Virginia, November 12, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.justice.gov/usao-edva/pr/atomwaffen-division-member-pleads-guilty-firearms-charge.

“Estonian Police Identify ‘Key Figure’ in International Neo-Nazi Hate Group. He’s 13 Years Old,” TIME, April 13, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://time.com/5820178/neo-nazi-group-estonia-commander-child/.

“Florida Neo-Nazi leader gets 5 years for having explosive material,” NBC News, January 9, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/florida-neo-nazi-leader-gets-5-years-having-explosive-material-n836246.

“From passive search to active conversation: An evaluation of the Facebook Redirect Programme,” Moonshot CVE, November 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, http://moonshotcve.com/facebook-redirect-programme-evaluation-report/.

“GW Extremism Tracker: ISIS in America,” GWU Program on Extremism, October 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://extremism.gwu.edu/isis-america.

“James Mason’s Siege: Ties to Extremists,” Counter Extremism Project, accessed April 28, 2020, https://www.counterextremism.com/sites/default/files/james-mason-siege-ties-to-extremists.pdf.

“Life After Hate awarded $750,000 to disrupt domestic terrorism,” Life After Hate, September 16, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.lifeafterhate.org/blog/2020/9/16/life-after-hate-awarded-750000-to-disrupt-domestic-terrorism.

“Murder and Extremism in the United States in 2019,” Anti-Defamation League, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.adl.org/murder-and-extremism-2019.

“Rose Introduces Resolution Calling on Admin to Designate Foreign Violent White Supremacist Groups as Foreign Terrorist Organizations,” Office of United States Congressman Max Rose, March 4, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://maxrose.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=2507.

“Teenage neo-Nazis jailed over terror offences,” BBC, June 18, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-48672929.

“US soldier Ethan Melzer accused of planning attack on own unit,” BBC, June 23, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-53145806.

“White supremacist members arrested on riot charges tied to Charlottesville,” Guardian, October 24, 2018, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/oct/24/white-supremacist-members-arrested-charlottesville-riot.

“Why Countering Violent Extremism Programs Are Bad Policy,” Brennan Center for Justice, September 9, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/why-countering-violent-extremism-programs-are-bad-policy.

Ainsley, Julia Edwards, Dustin Volz, and Kristina Cooke, “Exclusive: Trump to focus counter-extremism program solely on Islam – sources,” Reuters, February 1, 2017, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-extremists-program-exclusiv-idUSKBN15G5VO

Alexander, Audrey, “A Plan for Preventing and Countering Terrorist and Violent Extremist Exploitation of Information and Communications Technology in America,” GWU Program on Extremism, September 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://extremism.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2191/f/A%20Plan%20for%20Preventing%20and%20Countering%20Terrorist%20and%20Violent%20Extremist.pdf.

Anderson, Jessica, “FBI arrests alleged white supremacists from Maryland before Virginia gun rally; detention hearings set,” Baltimore Sun, January 16, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/crime/bs-md-cr-alleged-white-supremacist-members-charged-20200116-ybghual5yjc5pehu6fes4ooyne-story.html.

Baker, Mike, Adam Goldman, and Neil MacFarquhar, “White Supremacists Targeted Journalists and a Trump Official, F.B.I. Says,” New York Times, February 26, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/26/us/atomwaffen-division-arrests.html.

Bakker, Edwin, and Beatrice de Graaf, “Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed,” Perspectives on Terrorism 5, no. 5/6 (December 2011), 43-50, https://www.jstor.org/stable/26298538#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Baldas, Tresa, Paul Egan, and Bill Atkinson, “FBI says Virginia Gov. Northam was also targeted in plot to kidnap Michigan Gov. Whitmer,” USA Today, October 13, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/10/13/fbi-says-virginia-governor-in-whitmer-kidnapping-plot/5978635002/.

Baldauf, Johannes, Julia Ebner and Jakob Guhl (eds.), “Hate Speech and Radicalisation Online: The OCCI Research Report,” Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2019, https://www.isdglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/ISD-Hate-Speech-and-Radicalisation-Online-English-Draft-2.pdf.

Beauchamp, Zack, “Accelerationism: the obscure idea inspiring white supremacist killers around the world,” Vox, November 18, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.vox.com/the-highlight/2019/11/11/20882005/accelerationism-white-supremacy-christchurch.

Bell, Stewart, “‘It’s healing’: How former extremists are working together to undermine the far right,” Global News, November 3, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://globalnews.ca/news/6098551/stopping-extremists-counter-propaganda/.

Berger, J.M., “The Strategy of Violent White Supremacy Is Evolving,” Atlantic, August 7, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/08/the-new-strategy-of-violent-white-supremacy/595648/.

Bertrand, Natasha, Nahal Toosi, and Daniel Lippman, “State pushes to list white supremacist group as terrorist org,” Politico, March 9, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/03/09/state-department-white-supremacist-group-124500.

Bjørgo, Tore, and John Horgan (eds.), Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (New York: Routledge, 2008).

Bjørgo, Tore, and Jacob Aasland Ravndal, “Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns, and Responses,” International Centre for Counter-Terrorism- The Hague, September 2019, https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Extreme-Right-Violence-and-Terrorism-Concepts-Patterns-and-Responses.pdf.

Blazakis, Jason M., “American Terrorists: Why Current Laws Are Inadequate for Violent Extremists at Home,” Lawfare, December 2, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/american-terrorists-why-current-laws-are-inadequate-violent-extremists-home.

Budryk, Zack, “FBI Agents Association calls on Congress to make ‘domestic terrorism’ a federal crime,” Hill, August 6, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://thehill.com/policy/national-security/domestic-terrorism/456356-fbi-agents-association-calls-on-congress-to-make.

Byman, Daniel, “Can Lone Wolves Be Stopped?” Lawfare, March 15, 2017, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/can-lone-wolves-be-stopped.

Byman, Daniel, “Right-Wingers Are America’s Deadliest Terrorists,” Slate, August 5, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2019/08/right-wing-terrorist-killings-government-focus-jihadis-islamic-radicalism.html.

Byman, Daniel, “Trump’s Rhetoric Is Raising the Risk of Right-Wing Terrorism,” Slate, January 21, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2019/01/right-wing-terrorism-trump-rhetoric.html.

Chappell, Bill, Merrit Kennedy, and Vanessa Romo, “3 Alleged Members Of Hate Group ‘The Base’ Arrested In Georgia, Another In Wisconsin,” NPR, January 17, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2020/01/17/797399834/3-alleged-members-of-hate-group-the-base-arrested-in-georgia.

Corner, Emily, and Paul Gill, “A False Dichotomy? Mental Illness and Lone-Actor Terrorism,” Law and Human Behavior 39, no. 1 (2015): 23-34, https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2014-33751-001.pdf.

Daugherty, Casie Elizabeth, “Deradicalization and Disengagement: Exit Programs in Norway and Sweden and Addressing Neo-Nazi Extremism,” Journal for Deradicalization 21 (Winter 2019/20), http://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/287.

Davey, Jacob, Henry Tuck, and Amarnath Amarasingam, “An imprecise science: Assessing interventions for the prevention, disengagement and de-radicalisation of left and right-wing extremists,” Institute for Strategic Dialogue, 2019, https://www.isdglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/An-imprecise-science.pdf.

Frontline, “Documenting Hate: New American Nazis,” PBS, November 20, 2018, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/documenting-hate-new-american-nazis/.

Frosch, Dan, Cameron McWhirter, and Ben Kesling, “The New Right-Wing Extremism: Unified, Tech-Savvy and Emboldened,” Wall Street Journal, August 16, 2017, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/right-wing-extremists-appeared-declining-and-disconnecteduntil-charlottesville-1502901201.

Frum, David, “A President Who Condones Political Violence,” Atlantic, October 26, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2018/10/trump-bombs-florida-tweets/574108/.

Gielen, Amy-Jane, “Countering Violent Extremism: A Realist Review for Assessing What Works, for Whom, in What Circumstances, and How?” Terrorism and Political Violence 31, no. 6 (2019): 1149-1167, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09546553.2017.1313736?needAccess=true.

Gilbert, David, “Two Men Linked to QAnon Arrested For Plot to Attack Philly Vote Counting Site,” Vice, November 6, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/n7vbbg/pennsylvania-convention-center-arrests.

Greer, Ryan, and Vidhya Ramalingam, “The Search for Extremism: Deploying the Redirect Method,” Washington Institute, February 27, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/the-search-for-extremism-deploying-the-redirect-method/.

Grierson, Jamie, “UK to ban neo-Nazi Sonnenkrieg Division as a terrorist group,” Guardian, February 24, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/feb/24/uk-ban-neo-nazi-sonnenkrieg-division-terrorist-group.

Gruenewald, Jeff, Steven Chermak, and Joshua Freilich, “Distinguishing ‘Loner’ Attacks from Other Domestic Extremist Violence,” Criminology & Public Policy 12, no. 1 (2013): 65-91.

Guarino, Mark, Mark Berman, Jaclyn Peiser, and Griff Witte, “17-year-old charged with homicide after shooting during Kenosha protests, authorities say,” Washington Post, August 26, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/08/26/jacob-blake-kenosha-police-protests/.

Hamm, Mark S., and Ramón Spaaij, The Age of Lone Wolf Terrorism (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017).

Hendrix, Steve, “In the Army and the Klan, he hated Muslims. Now one was coming to Chris Buckley's home.” Washington Post, June 5, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/local/wp/2018/06/05/feature/in-the-army-and-the-klan-he-hated-muslims-now-one-was-coming-to-his-home/.

Hermansson, Patrik, “Hitler Youths: The Rise of Teenage Far-Right Terrorists,” Hope Not Hate, September 2020, https://www.hopenothate.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/HnH_Hitler-Youths-report_2020-09-v2.pdf.

Hoffman, Bruce, “Back to the Future: The Return of Violent Far-Right Terrorism in the Age of Lone Wolves,” War on the Rocks, April 2, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://warontherocks.com/2019/04/back-to-the-future-the-return-of-violent-far-right-terrorism-in-the-age-of-lone-wolves/.

Hoffman, Bruce, and Jacob Ware, “The Terrorist Threat from the Fractured Far Right,” Lawfare, November 1, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/terrorist-threat-fractured-far-right.

Hoffman, Bruce, Jacob Ware, and Ezra Shapiro, “Assessing the Threat of Incel Violence,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 43, no. 7 (2020): 565-587, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1057610X.2020.1751459?journalCode=uter20.

Horgan, John, Mary Beth Altier, Neil Shortland, and Max Taylor, “Walking away: the disengagement and de-radicalization of a violent right-wing extremist,” Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression 9, no. 2 (2017): https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19434472.2016.1156722.

Hughes, Seamus, and Haroro J. Ingram, “Trump’s Domestic Countering Violent Extremism Policies Look a Lot Like Obama’s,” Lawfare, March 10, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/trumps-domestic-countering-violent-extremism-policies-look-lot-obamas.

Hume, Tim, “Don’t Blame Germany’s Far Right for the Hanau Shooting, Says Germany’s Far Right,” Vice, February 21, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/y3m5zk/dont-blame-germanys-far-right-for-the-hanau-shooting-says-germanys-far-right,

Jackson, Paul, “Transnational Neo-Nazism in the USA, United Kingdom and Australia,” GWU Program on Extremism, February 2020, https://extremism.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2191/f/Jackson%20-%20Transnational%20neo%20Nazism%20in%20the%20USA%2C%20United%20Kingdom%20and%20Australia.pdf.

Jouvenal, Justin, “Va. teen accused of killing girlfriend’s parents to be tried as an adult,” Washington Post, September 24, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/va-teen-accused-of-killing-girlfriends-parents-to-be-tried-as-an-adult/2019/09/24/3e628fae-af13-11e9-a0c9-6d2d7818f3da_story.html.

Koehler, Daniel, “De-radicalization and Disengagement Programs as Counter-Terrorism and Prevention Tools. Insights from Field Experiences Regarding German Right-Wing Extremism and Jihadism,” in Marco Lombardi, Eman Ragab, Vivienne Chin, Yvon Dandurand, Valerio de Divitiis, and Alessando Burato (eds.), Countering Radicalisation and Violent Extremism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism (Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2015).

Koehler, Daniel, “The Radical Online: Individual Radicalization Processes and the Role of the Internet,” Journal for Deradicalization 1 (Winter 2014/15), http://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/8.

Koehler, Daniel, “Violence and Terrorism from the Far-Right: Policy Options to Counter an

Elusive Threat,” International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, February 2019, https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Koehler-Violence-and-Terrorism-from-the-Far-Right-February-2019.pdf.

Koehler, Daniel, and Verena Fiebig, “Knowing What to Do: Academic and Practitioner Understanding of How to Counter Violent Radicalization,” Perspectives on Terrorism 13, no. 3 (June 2019), https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/binaries/content/assets/customsites/perspectives-on-terrorism/2019/issue-3/04---koehler-and-fiebig.pdf.

Kunzelman, Michael, “Documents: Extremist group wanted rally to start civil war,” Associated Press, January 21, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://apnews.com/e5d17a8735678aa604a22f011c2685db.

Lamoureux, Mack, Ben Makuch, and Zachary Kamel, “Man Arrested for Synagogue Vandalism Was Active in Two Militant Neo-Nazi Groups,” Vice, November 20, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/pa75jk/man-arrested-for-synagogue-vandalism-was-active-in-two-militant-neo-nazi-groups.

Lewandowsky, Stephan, and John Cook, The Conspiracy Theory Handbook (2020), https://www.climatechangecommunication.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ConspiracyTheoryHandbook.pdf.

Lewis, Jon, and Seamus Hughes, “Our laws have a problem calling domestic terrorism what it is,” Hill, February 6, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://thehill.com/opinion/national-security/481166-our-laws-have-a-problem-calling-domestic-terrorism-what-it-is.

Lewis, Jon, Seamus Hughes, Oren Segal, and Ryan Greer, “White Supremacist Terror: Modernizing Our Approach to Today’s Threat,” GWU Program on Extremism, April 2020, https://extremism.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2191/f/White%20Supremacist%20Terror%20final.pdf.

Lister, Tim, “The Nexus Between Far-Right Extremists in the United States and Ukraine,” CTC Sentinel 13, no. 4 (April 2020), https://ctc.usma.edu/the-nexus-between-far-right-extremists-in-the-united-states-and-ukraine/.

MacFarquhar, Neil, “White Extremism Faces a Subversive Foe Online: Google Ads,” New York Times, December 30, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/30/us/white-supremacy-moonshot-google-ads.html.

Makuch, Ben, “Audio Recording Claims Neo-Nazi Terror Group Is Disbanding,” Vice, March 15, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.vice.com/amp/en_us/article/qjdnam/audio-recording-claims-neo-nazi-terror-group-is-disbanding.

Makuch, Ben, “Neo-Nazi Terror Group Atomwaffen Division Re-Emerges Under New Name,” Vice, August 5, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/wxq7jy/neo-nazi-terror-group-atomwaffen-division-re-emerges-under-new-name.

Mallin, Alexander, and Luke Barr, “Inside the neo-Nazi hate group ‘The Base,’ which is the center of an FBI investigation,” ABC News, January 23, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/US/inside-neo-nazi-hate-group-base-center-fbi/story?id=68459758.

Marantz, Andrew, “Free Speech Is Killing Us,” New York Times, October 4, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/04/opinion/sunday/free-speech-social-media-violence.html.

Mathias, Christopher, “Amid The Pandemic, U.S. Militia Groups Plot ‘The Boogaloo,’ AKA Civil War, On Facebook,” Huffington Post, April 24, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/boogaloo-facebook-pages-coronavirus-militia-group-extremists_n_5ea3072bc5b6d376358eba98.

Mattsson, Christer, and Thomas Johansson, “Leaving Hate Behind – Neo-Nazis, Significant Others and Disengagement,” Journal for Deradicalization 18 (Spring 2019), https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/193/147.

McCord, Mary B., and Jason M. Blazakis, “A Road Map for Congress to Address Domestic Terrorism,” Lawfare, February 27, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/road-map-congress-address-domestic-terrorism.

Meleagrou-Hitchens, Alexander, and Blyth Crawford, “5G and the Far Right: How Extremists Capitalise on Coronavirus Conspiracies,” Global Network on Extremism & Technology, April 21, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://gnet-research.org/2020/04/21/5g-and-the-far-right-how-extremists-capitalise-on-coronavirus-conspiracies/.

Money, Luke, “Newport man accused of murdering Blaze Bernstein denies hate crime,” Daily Pilot, August 22, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.latimes.com/socal/daily-pilot/news/tn-dpt-me-woodward-hearing-20180822-story.html.

Myre, Greg, “Deadly Connection: Neo-Nazi Group Linked To 3 Accused Killers,” NPR, March 6, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2018/03/06/590292705/5-killings-3-states-and-1-common-neo-nazi-link.

Nathan, Julie, “Antipodean Resistance: The Rise and Goals of Australia's New Nazis,” ABC, April 20, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.abc.net.au/religion/antipodean-resistance-the-rise-and-goals-of-australias-new-nazis/10094794.

National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, “Lone Offender: A Study of Lone Offender Terrorism in the United States,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, November 2019, https://www.fbi.gov/file-repository/lone-offender-terrorism-report-111319.pdf/view.

Neiwert, David, Alt-America: The Rise of the Radical Right in the Age of Trump (New York: Verso, 2017).

Nicas, Jack, “Alex Jones Said Bans Would Strengthen Him. He Was Wrong.” New York Times, September 4, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/04/technology/alex-jones-infowars-bans-traffic.html.

Noyes, Dan, “What pushed accused cop killer Steven Carrillo over the edge? Former friend weighs in,” ABC 7 News, July 14, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://abc7news.com/steven-carrillo-santa-cruz-boogaloo-pat-underwood-oakland-federal-officer/6317728/.

Olmstead, Molly, “The Suspect in the Killing of Blaze Bernstein Belonged to a Neo-Nazi Group Allegedly Connected to Four Other Murders,” Slate, January 31, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/01/atomwaffen-division-blaze-bernsteins-suspected-killer-was-part-of-neo-nazi-group-tied-to-other-murders.html.

Pandith, Farah, How We Win: How Cutting-Edge Entrepreneurs, Political Visionaries, Enlightened Business Leaders, and Social Media Mavens Can Defeat the Extremist Threat (New York: Custom House, 2019).

Parents for Peace, “About us,” accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.parents4peace.org/about/.

Post, Jerrold M., Cody McGinnis, and Kristen Moody, “The Changing Face of Terrorism in the 21st Century: The Communications Revolution and the Virtual Community of Hatred,” Behavioral Sciences & the Law 32, no. 3 (May/June 2014): 306-334, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bsl.2123.

Reitman, Janet, “How Did a Convicted Neo-Nazi Release Propaganda From Prison?” Rolling Stone, May 25, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/how-did-a-convicted-neo-nazi-release-propaganda-from-prison-628437/.

Renard, Thomas, “Overblown: Exploring the Gap Between the Fear of Terrorist Recidivism and the Evidence,” CTC Sentinel 13, no. 4 (April 2020), https://ctc.usma.edu/overblown-exploring-the-gap-between-the-fear-of-terrorist-recidivism-and-the-evidence/.

Rosand, Eric, “Responding to the Rise in Domestic Terrorism: Don’t Forget Prevention,” Lawfare, May 26, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/responding-rise-domestic-terrorism-dont-forget-prevention.

Rosand, Eric, and Stevan Weine, “To Prevent Extremist Violence in the United States, Think Beyond the Homeland Security Box,” Lawfare, September 6, 2020, accessed December 10, 2020, https://www.lawfareblog.com/prevent-extremist-violence-united-states-think-beyond-homeland-security-box.

Sales, Nathan, “Briefing on the United States Designation of the Russian Imperial Movement and Its Leaders as Global Terrorists,” U.S. Department of State Special Briefing, April 6, 2020, https://www.state.gov/briefing-with-coordinator-for-counterterrorism-ambassador-nathan-a-sales-on-the-united-states-designation-of-the-russian-imperial-movement-and-its-leaders-as-global-terrorists/.

Savage, Charlie, Adam Goldman, and Eric Schmitt, “U.S. Will Give Terrorist Label to White Supremacist Group for First Time,” New York Times, April 6, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/06/us/politics/terrorist-label-white-supremacy-Russian-Imperial-Movement.html.

Schulberg, Jessica, and Luke O’Brien, “We Found The Neo-Nazi Twitter Account Tied To A Virginia Double Homicide,” Huffington Post, January 4, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/nicholas-giampa-neo-nazi-teenager-murder-girlfriends-parents-virginia_n_5a4d0797e4b0b0e5a7aa4780.

Scrivens, Ryan, Vivek Venkatesh, Maxime Bérubé, and Tiana Gaudette. “Combating Violent Extremism: Voices of Former Right-Wing Extremists,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism (2019), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1057610X.2019.1686856?journalCode=uter20.

Sullivan, Dan, “Experts: One-time neo-Nazi charged in double murder has autism, schizophrenia,” Tampa Bay Times, December 19, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.tampabay.com/news/crime/2019/12/19/experts-one-time-neo-nazi-charged-in-double-murder-has-autism-schizophrenia/.

Sunstein, Cass R., and Adrian Vermeule, “Conspiracy Theories: Causes and Cures,” Journal of Political Philosophy 17, no. 2 (2009): 202-227, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9760.2008.00325.x.

Tankel, Stephen, “Riding the Tiger: How Trump Enables Right-Wing Extremism,” War on the Rocks, November 5, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://warontherocks.com/2018/11/riding-the-tiger-how-trump-enables-right-wing-extremism/.

Thompson, A.C., Ali Winston, and Jake Hanrahan, “Inside Atomwaffen As It Celebrates a Member for Allegedly Killing a Gay Jewish College Student,” ProPublica, February 23, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.propublica.org/article/atomwaffen-division-inside-white-hate-group.

Thompson, A.C., Ali Winston, and Jake Hanrahan, “Ranks of Notorious Hate Group Include Active-Duty Military,” ProPublica, May 3, 2018, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.propublica.org/article/atomwaffen-division-hate-group-active-duty-military.

van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, André P. M. Krouwel, and Thomas V. Pollet, “Political Extremism Predicts Belief in Conspiracy Theories,” Social Psychological and Personality Science 6, no. 5 (July 2015): 570-78, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1948550614567356?journalCode=sppa.

Venhaus, John, “Why Youth Join Al-Qaeda,” United States Institute of Peace Special Report, May 2010, https://www.usip.org/publications/2010/05/why-youth-join-al-qaeda.

Voogt, Stevie, “Countering far-right recruitment online: CAPE’s practitioner experience,” Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism 12, no. 1 (2017): 34-46, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/18335330.2016.1215510?needAccess=true.

Wallace, Benjamin, “The Prep-School Nazi,” New York, March 30, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/03/rinaldo-nazzaro-the-base-norman-spear.html.

Walsh, Maria, and Antje Gansewig, “A former right-wing extremist in school-based prevention work: Research findings from Germany,” Journal for Deradicalization 21 (Winter 2019/20), https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/275/183.

Ware, Jacob, “Siege: The Atomwaffen Division and Rising Far-Right Terrorism in the United States,” International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, July 2019, https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/ICCT-Ware-Siege-July2019.pdf.

Weill, Kelly, “Feds Feared Alleged ‘Neo-Nazi’ Benjamin Bogard Could Be Next Mass Shooter,” Daily Beast, February 28, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.thedailybeast.com/feds-feared-alleged-neo-nazi-benjamin-bogard-could-be-next-mass-shooter.

Weill, Kelly, “Why Arrest of Richard Tobin Is Bad News for Neo-Nazi Group The Base,” Daily Beast, November 18, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.thedailybeast.com/why-arrest-of-richard-tobin-is-bad-news-for-neo-nazi-group-the-base.

Weiner, Rachel, “After renouncing white supremacist ideology, Virginia man sentenced to year in prison,” Washington Post, February 28, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/after-renouncing-white-supremacist-ideology-virginia-atomwaffen-leader-sentenced-to-year-in-prison/2020/02/28/9e7c9d28-5975-11ea-9b35-def5a027d470_story.html.

Weiner, Rachel, and Matt Zapotosky, “Five arrested, accused of targeting journalists as part of neo-Nazi Atomwaffen group,” Washington Post, February 26, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/propublica-named-him-as-an-atomwaffen-leader-feds-say-he-struck-back/2020/02/26/c9548ac4-57e5-11ea-ab68-101ecfec2532_story.html.

Williams, Pete, “Missouri man planned to bomb hospital during pandemic to get attention for white supremacist views,” NBC News, March 30, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/missouri-man-planned-bomb-hospital-during-pandemic-get-attention-white-n1172346.

Wilson, Jason, “Revealed: the true identity of the leader of an American neo-Nazi terror group,” Guardian, January 23, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/23/revealed-the-true-identity-of-the-leader-of-americas-neo-nazi-terror-group.

Wilson, Jason, “The rightwing groups behind wave of protests against Covid-19 restrictions,” Guardian, April 17, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/17/far-right-coronavirus-protests-restrictions.

Windisch, Steven, Pete Simi, Gina Scott Ligon, and Hillary McNeel, “Disengagement from ideologically-based and violent organizations: A systematic review of the literature,” Journal for Deradicalization 9 (Winter 2016/17), http://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/72.

Winston, Ali, “Atomwaffen Division’s Washington State Cell Leader Stripped of Arsenal in U.S., Banned from Canada,” Daily Beast, October 19, 2019, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.thedailybeast.com/kaleb-james-cole-atomwaffen-divisions-washington-state-leader-stripped-of-arsenal-in-us-banned-from-canada.

Wood, Michael J., and Karen M. Douglas, ““What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories,” Frontiers in Psychology 4 (2013): https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00409/full.

Zauzmer, Julie, “Man charged with planting a bomb at a Jewish assisted-living home in apparent anti-Semitic attack in Massachusetts,” Washington Post, April 16, 2020, accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/2020/04/16/massachusetts-man-charged-with-planting-bomb-jewish-assisted-living-home-apparent-anti-semitic-attack/.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Jacob Ware

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)