How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised?

Luke Bertram

Abstract


This article addresses the potential to de-radicalize a terrorist, and if so how could this be achieved? The article also outlines the distinction between de-radicalization, counter-radicalization and disengagement. In order to understand the potential of de-radicalization techniques, research examines the factors that might lead to initial radicalization. The strategy of some state-based de-radicalization programs, particularly the Saudi Arabian de-radicalization program are examined and the importance of unique tailoring in these programs is identified. The relevance of ideology and life skill training within de-radicalization programs is also examined. The extensive impact that information communication technology has had on radicalization is also addressed and following on, the potential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization through information communication platforms is also discussed. The importance of an accurate and appropriately delivered counter-narrative message is examined and the value of such a counter-narrative is discussed in terms of it possibly planting the seed of question in a terrorist, which may eventually support the terrorist questioning of terrorist group ideology. Highly relevant to the future de-radicalization of an ‘in organisation’ terrorist is the issue of how states might manage the potential return of terrorists who are known to be overseas and whether the best solution is or is not to prevent the terrorist from returning to a home-country, which is examined within. It could be presumed that a terrorist who is returning to a home-country may face some term of incarceration, as an extension of this issue that states must address, the effect that incarceration might have on a terrorist is also examined. The discussions in this article are relevant to policy-makers, de-radicalization program designers and security sector actors. 


Keywords


Radicalization; De-Radicalization; Counter-Radicalization; Self-De-Radicalization; Foreign Fighters

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbasi, S. (n.d). De-radicalization Strategy: Prospects for Rehabilitation of Ex-Militants. Retrieved from http://frc.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Research-Paper-61.pdf

Akbarzadeh, S. (2014, 8 January). Investing in Mentoring and Educational Initiatives: The Limits of De-Radicalisation Programs in Australia. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. Volume 33, number 4, 451-463. London, United Kingdom: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved from http://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/doi/abs/10.1080/13602004.2013.866347

Ashour, O. (2010, December). Online De-Radicalization? Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy. Perspectives on Terrorism, volume 4, issue 6.

Atran, S., Bunting, M. & Husain, E. (2011, October 5). Pathways to and from radicalisation [Video file]. The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WghSJ7phSCc

Barrett, R. (2014, November). The Islamic State. New York: The Soufan Group. Retrieved from http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

Bjørgo, T. and Horgan, J. (n.d). Leaving Terrorism Behind, Individual and collective disengagement. Minister for Refugees, Immigrants and Integration – Kingdom of Denmark. Retrieved from https://www.nyidanmark.dk/NR/rdonlyres/82A2FB65-27B0-4129-ACC5-284E2B4F5F43/0/leaving_terrorism_behind.pdf

Boucek, C. (2011, 10 July). Deradicalization?: Oasis or Mirage? [Video file]. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsaXsFgPjes

Boucek, C. and Johnsen, G.D. (2008, November). The Dilemma of the Yemeni Detainees at Guantanamo Bay. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 12. Combatting Terrorism Centre at West Point. Retrieved from http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA493761

Briggs, R. and Feve, S. (2013). Review of Programs to Counter Narratives of Violent Extremism: what works and what are the implications for government? Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Retrieved from http://www.strategicdialogue.org/ISD_Kanishka_Report.pdf

Bryans, S. (2014, 25 June). Radicalisation and deradicalisation in prison – what should we do with violent extremist offenders? Penal Reform International. Retrieved from http://www.penalreform.org/blog/radicalisation-deradicalisation-prison-violent-extremist-offenders/

Burke, J. (2013, 9 June). Fighting terrorism: Do 'deradicalisation' camps really work? The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/09/terrorism-do-deradicalisation-camps-work

Butt, R. and Tuck, H. (n.d). European Counter-Radicalisation and De-radicalisation: A Comparative Evaluation of Approaches in the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Retrieved from http://www.strategicdialogue.org/De-radicalisation_final.pdf

Choudhury, T. (2009). Stepping out: supporting exit strategies from Violence and extremism. Project: European network of former extremists, feasibility assessment. Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Retrieved from http://www.strategicdialogue.org/ISD%20Network%20of%20Former%20Extremists%20Feasibility%20Assessment-Nov%202009-FINAL.pdf

DeAngelis, T. (2009, November). Understanding terrorism: Psychologists are amassing more concrete data on the factors that lead some people to terrorism—and using those insights to develop ways to thwart it. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/11/terrorism.aspx

Dow Jones and Company. (2014). More Lone Terrorist Wolves. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/more-lone-terrorist-wolves-1434150724

Edwards, C., Gribbon, L., Reding, A. & Von Behr, I. (2013). Radicalisation in the digital era: The use of the internet in 15 case studies of terrorism and extremism. Brussels, Belgium: RAND Europe. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR453/RAND_RR453.pdf

General Intelligence and Security Service – Kingdom of the Netherlands. (2004, December). From Dawa to Jihad: The various threats from radical Islam to the democratic legal order. Ministry of Interior and Kingdom Relations: The Hague. Retrieved from http://www.securitymanagementinitiative.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_details&gid=494〈=en

Global Counterterrorism Forum. (2014). Rome Memorandum on Good Practices for Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders. Retrieved from https://www.thegctf.org/documents/10162/159878/Rome+Memorandum-English.pdf

Green, S. N. (2015, 25 September). Changing the Narrative: Countering Violent Extremist Propaganda. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from http://csis.org/publication/changing-narrative-countering-violent-extremist-propaganda

Hearne, E. B. and Laiq, N. (2010, 1 June). A New Approach? Deradicalization Programs and Counterterrorism. International Peace Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ipinst.org/2010/07/a-new-approach-deradicalization-programs-and-counterterrorism

Horgan, J. and Altier, M. B. (2012). The Future of Terrorist De-Radicalization Programs. Conflict & Security. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs.

Horgan, J. and Braddock, K. (2010, 9 March). Rehabilitating the Terrorists?: Challenges in Assessing the Effectiveness of Deradicalization Programs. Terrorism and Political Violence, volume 22, 267-291. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Husain, E. (2007) [b]. Islam is the solution. In The Islamist : why I joined radical Islam in Britain, what I saw inside and why I left (pp. 48-66).

London, United Kingdom: Penguin Books. Retrieved from https://www.csu.edu.au/division/library/ereserve/pdf/husain-e.pdf

Husain, E. (2007, June 5) [a]. Radical Islam: Britain's huge problem [Video file]. The Cable Network News (CNN). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_WKFpak9Mc

Jacobson, M. (2010, January). Terrorism Dropouts: Learning from Those Who Have Left. Policy Focus: 101. Washington – District of Colombia, United States of America: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved from http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/terrorist-dropouts-learning-from-those-who-have-left

Jones, C. (2014, 2 September). When foreign fighters return: managing terrorists behind bars. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/when-foreign-fighters-return-managing-terrorists-behind-bars-31054

Jones, C. (2015, 19 May) [a]. Interview: Dr Clarke Jones - terrorism and radicalisation expert [Video File]. Lateline. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2015/s4238772.htm

Jones, C. (2015, 17 March) [b]. Jake Bilardi’s story shows why terrorist intervention must be tailored. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/jake-bilardis-story-shows-why-terrorist-intervention-must-be-tailored-38769

Kappers, S. (2011, 10 July). Deradicalization?: Oasis or Mirage? [Video file]. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsaXsFgPjes

Köhler, D. and Berczyk, J. (2014). EXIT-Germany. We Provide a Way Out. De-Radicalization and Disengagement. Revised Second Edition. Berlin, Germany: EXIT-Deutschland. Retrieved from http://www.exit-deutschland.de/file_download/29/Broschuere-EXIT-Engl_PDFDS_11.4.pdf

Kruglanski, A. W. and Gelfand, M. J. (2015). Aspects of Deradicalization. Institute for the Study of Asymmetric Conflict. Retrieved from http://www.asymmetricconflict.org/articles/aspects-of-deradicalization/

Kuhl, D. (2009). The Islamist: Why I joined radical Islam in Britain, what I saw inside and why I left [Book review]. Institute of Islamic Studies. Retrieved from http://www.islaminstitut.de/uploads/media/Rez_The_Islamist_engl.pdf

Labi, N. (2006, July – August). Jihad 2.0. The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/07/jihad-20/304980/

Marret, J. L. (2013, September). On Self-Deradicalisation. Scientific approach to Finding Indicators of and Responses to Radicalisation. Retrieved from http://www.safire-project-results.eu/documents/focus/19.pdf

Morris, M., Eberhard, F., Rivera, J. and Watsula, M. (2010, May).

Deradicalization: A Review of the Literature with Comparison to Findings in the Literatures on Deganging and Deprogramming. Institute for Homeland Security Solutions.

Mohamedou, M-M. O. (2015, 18 June). The Islamic State, Al-Qaeda, and Postmodern Globalized Violence [Video file]. The Fletcher School, Fares Centre for Eastern Mediterranean Studies. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kFFfKJydBfs

Nawaz, M. (2011, 19 July). A global culture to fight extremism [Video file]. Ted Conferences. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZwxKPv1CwA

Obaid-Chinoy, S. (2009, April 14). Children of the Taliban [Video file]. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Retrieved from http://video.pbs.org/video/1134781691/

Pantucci, R. 2011, March). A Typology of Lone Wolves: Preliminary Analysis of Lone Islamist Terrorists. London, United Kingdom: The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence. Retrieved from http://www.trackingterrorism.org/sites/default/files/chatter/1302002992ICSRPaper_ATypologyofLoneWolves_Pantucci.pdf

Porges, M. (2011, 1 July). Reform School for Radicals. Deradicalization programs are justified by their indirect effects. The American Interest. Volume 6, number 6. Retrieved from http://www.the-american-interest.com/2011/07/01/reform-school-for-radicals/

Pretch, T. (2007, December). Home grown terrorism and Islamist radicalisation in Europe. From Conversion to Terrorism. An assessment of the factors influencing violent Islamist extremism and suggestions for counter radicalisation measures. Denmark: Danish Ministry of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/sites/default/files/media/Arbejdsomraader/Forskning/Forskningspuljen/2011/2007/Home_grown_terrorism_and_Islamist_radicalisation_in_Europe_-_an_assessment_of_influencing_factors__2_.pdf

Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, S. L., Ghez, J. J. and Boucek, C. (2010) Deradicalizing Islamist Extremist. National Security Research Division. California, United States of America: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2010/RAND_MG1053.pdf

Ramalingam, V. (2014). On the Front Line: A guide to countering far-right extremism. Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Retrieved from http://www.strategicdialogue.org/On_The_Front_Line_Far_RightHANDBOOK.pdf

Rana, M. A. (2011, April – June). Swat De-radicalization Model: Prospects for Rehabilitating Militants. Islamabad, Pakistan; Pak Institute for Peace Studies. Retrieved from http://san-pips.com/download.php?f=209.pdf

Rubin, E. (2004, 7 March). The Jihadi Who Kept Asking Why. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/07/magazine/the-jihadi-who-kept-asking-why.html?pagewanted=all

Sageman, M. (2008). Leaderless Jihad: Terror networks in the twenty first century. Philadelphia, United States of America: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Schmid, A. P. (2013, March). Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. International Centre for Counter-Terrorism. Retrieved from http://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Schmid-Radicalisation-De-Radicalisation-Counter-Radicalisation-March-2013.pdf

Solomon, H. (2013, 13 December). Combating Islamist radicalisation in South Africa. African Security Review. Volume 23(1) pp.17-33. London, United Kingdom: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved from http://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/doi/abs/10.1080/10246029.2013.862171

Spalek, B. and Davies, L. (2012, 23 April). Mentoring in Relation to Violent Extremism: A Study of Role, Purpose, and Outcomes. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35:5, 354-368. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Spencer, R. (2015, 1 August). Islamic State executes six people for leaving Islam. Johad Watch. Retrieved from http://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/islamic-state-executes-six-people-for-leaving-islam

Stern, J. and Porges, M. (2010, 1 May). Getting Deradicalization Right. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/persian-gulf/2010-05-01/getting-deradicalization-right

Stevens, T. and Neumann, P.R. (2009, 28 January). Countering Online Radicalisation: A Strategy for Action. London, United Kingdom: The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence. Retrieved from https://cst.org.uk/docs/countering_online_radicalisation1.pdf

Stone, D. (2011, 10 July). Deradicalization?: Oasis or Mirage? [Video file]. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsaXsFgPjes

Townsend, F. F. (2011, 10 July). Deradicalization?: Oasis or Mirage? [Video file]. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsaXsFgPjes

Townsend, F. F. (2015, 19 June). Smart Women, Smart Power: Fighting Terrorism in the Age of ISIS [Video file]. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cd_80FB5HQU

Vela, J. (2015, 1 July). Details emerge of Kuwait mosque bomber’s path to radicalisation. The National. http://www.thenational.ae/world/middle-east/details-emerge-of-kuwait-mosque-bombers-path-to-radicalisation

Williams, M. J. and Lindsey, S. C. (2013, 17 January). A social psychological critique of the Saudi terrorism risk reduction initiative. Psychology, Crime and Law, volume 20, number 2, 135 – 151. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Luke Bertram

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)