What About the Camp Followers – and their Children?

Ian MacVicar

Abstract


UN Security Council Resolution 2396 (2017) on Foreign Terrorist Fighters (Returnees and Relocators) urges nations to improve information and evidence sharing while developing tailored prosecution, rehabilitation and reintegration strategies; including programs addressing radicalization in children associated with “Foreign Terrorist Fighters.” The need for such programs has gained urgency since the collapse of Islamic State (IS)/Daesh, with the detainment of IS family members in overcrowded camps in Syria, and their uncertain fate following the Turkish military Operation PEACE SPRING, in October 2019. Approximately 2 million children underwent Daesh indoctrination June 2014 – 2019, and this process continues to be led by women in many detention camps. The heightened sense of vulnerability to terrorist attacks in Western nations has led many nations to refuse the return of children to their home country, or initial entry - fearing that their past radicalization will lead to future terrorism. Such decisions contravene, among other instruments, the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Convention on Refugees (1951), Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC 1989), and the Optional Protocol to the CRC on Children in Armed Conflict (OPAC, 2000). This paper examines emotional traumas experienced by Daesh “camp followers,” particularly the children, and the psychological rehabilitation and social reintegration challenges they face as they grow to adulthood. This paper argues that the psychosocial support needed for rehabilitation and reintegration is better found in Western societies than in refugee camps, which are often incubators for future terrorists.


Keywords


Children; Daesh; Deradicalization; International Law; Islamic State; Psychosocial; Radicalization; Trauma

Full Text:

PDF

References


A tiny proportion of foreign children in north east Syria camps repatriated in 2019. Save the Children, 16 October 2019. Retrieved from https://www.savethechildren.net/news/tiny-proportion-foreign-children-north-east-syria-camps-repatriated-2019 (Accessed 22 February 2020).

Al-Ghwell, H. (2019, 23 December). Anti-Daesh coalition’s progress threatened by unilateral moves. Arab News, retrieved from https://www.arabnews.com/node/1605686 (Accessed 13 January 2020).

Alleged Isis supporter accused of St Paul’s Cathedral bomb plot. The Guardian, Wed 16 Oct 2019 18.39 BST. Retrieved from https://amp.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/oct/16/alleged-isis-supporter-accused-of-st-pauls-cathedral-bomb-plot (Accessed 23 October 2019).

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd Ed.) (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: Author

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) (DSM 5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Barrett, R. (2017). Beyond the Caliphate. The Soufan Center (TSC), retrieved from https://thesoufancenter.org/research/beyond-caliphate/ (Accessed 2 January 2020).

Benotman, N. & Malik, N. (2016). The children of Islamic State. London, United Kingdom: Quilliam Foundation, Retrieved from https://f.hypotheses.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/2725/files/2016/04/the-children-of-islamic-state.pdf (Accessed 30 January 2020).

Bertelsen, P. (2015). Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies: The Aarhus model. Panorama, 01/2015: From the Desert to World Cities The New Terrorism, p. 241-253. Retrieved from https://psy.au.dk/fileadmin/Psykologi/Forskning/Preben_Bertelsen/Avisartikler_radikalisering/Panorama.pdf (Accessed 19 March 2020).

Binding, L. (2019, 16 October). Woman charged with planning to bomb St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sky News, 16 October 2019, 21:48 UK. Retrieved from https://news.sky.com/story/woman-charged-with-plot-to-plant-bombs-in-central-london-11837197 (Accessed 23 October 2019).

Boris, N., Zeanah, C., Work Group on Quality Issues (WGQI) (2005). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Volume 44, No. 11, November 2005, pp.1206-1219. Retrieved from https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(09)62229-2/fulltext (Accessed 19 January 2020).

Braga, L., Mello, M., & and Fiks, J. (2012). Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: A qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors. BMC Psychiatry Vol. 12, No. 134 (2012), pp. 1-11. Retrieved from https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1471-244X-12-134 (Accessed 1 February 2020).

Bremner, D., Elzinga, B., Schmahl, C., & Vermetten, E. (2008 [2007]). Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder. Progress in Brain Research, Volume 167, 2007, pp. 171-186. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226705/pdf/nihms-340137.pdf & https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079612307670125?via%3Dihub (Accessed 4 February 2020).

Brewster, M. (2019, 11 October). Turkish artillery hits Syrian prison holding British-Canadian accused ISIS supporter Jack Letts. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/amp/1.5319047 (Accessed 23 October 2019).

Canada. Global Affairs Canada (GAC) (2019). The Vancouver principles. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/human_rights-droits_hommes/principles-vancouver-principes.aspx?lang=eng (Accessed 24 January 2020).

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US) (CSAT). Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2014. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 57.) Chapter 1, Trauma-Informed Care: A Sociocultural Perspective. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207195/ (Accessed 19 January 2020).

Child Justice Advocacy Group (CJAG). (2020, 28 January). Bringing Children Home: A children’s rights approach to returning from ISIL. Published simultaneously by a coalition of human rights organization comprised of Child Rights International, Defence for Children International, justice studio, Penal Reform International, & Terres des hommes. Retrieved from https://www.tdh.ch/sites/default/files/en_child_returnees_position_paper_ok_0.pdf (Accessed 28 February 2020).

Clarke, C. (2019, 23 September). The terrorist threat posed by neglect and indifference. The RAND Blog, retrieved from https://www.rand.org/blog/2019/09/the-terrorist-threat-posed-by-neglect-and-indifference.html (Accessed 15 January 2020).

Cook, J. & Vale, G. (2018). From Daesh to ‘diaspora’: Tracing the women and minors of Islamic State. London, UK: International Centre for the Study of Radicalization, Department of War Studies, King’s College. Retrieved from https://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/ICSR-Report-From-Daesh-to-%E2%80%98Diaspora%E2%80%99-Tracing-the-Women-and-Minors-of-Islamic-State.pdf (Accessed 17 March 2020).

Cook, J. & Vale, G. (2019). From Daesh to ‘Diaspora’ II: The challenges posed by women and minors after the fall of the caliphate. London, UK: International Centre for the Study of Radicalization, Department of War Studies, King’s College. Retrieved from https://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/ICSR-Feature-From-Daesh-to-%E2%80%98Diaspora%E2%80%99-II-The-Challenges-Posed-by-Women-and-Minors-After-the-Fall-of-the-Caliphate.pdf (Accessed 17 March 2020).

Cottee, S. & Bloom, M. (2019, 28 March). The sinister ISIS plan for women and children. Daily Beast, retrieved from https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-sinister-isis-plan-for-women-and-children (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitiative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Derluyn, I., Broekaert, E., Schuyten, G., & De Temmerman, E. (2004). Post-traumatic stress in former Ugandan child soldiers. The Lancet, Vol. 363, No. 9412, pp. 861-863, March 13, 2004, (Research Letter). Retrieved from https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2804%2915734-6 (Accessed 6 February 2020).

Dodd, V., Sabbagh, D. & Syal, R. (2020, 2 February). Streatham attacker freed from jail days ago after terror conviction: Sudesh Amman, who was shot dead by police, was under police surveillance following release. The Guardian, Sun 2 Feb 2020 21.51 GMT. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/feb/02/streatham-attacker-was-released-terror-offender-sudesh-amman (Accessed 3 February 2020).

Dunford, J. & Cafarella, J. (2019, 13 May). ISIS’s opportunity in northern Syria’s detention facilities and camps. Institute for the Study of War (blog), May 13, 2019. Retrieved from http://iswresearch.blogspot.com/2019/05/isiss-opportunity-in-northern-syrias.htm (Accessed 15 January 2020).

Ensor, J. & Lyons, I. (2019, 18 November). British and Irish women who recruited for Isil found in makeshift jail after escaping detention camp. The Telegraph, 18 November 2019, 5:56 PM. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/10/16/british-isil-recruiters-tooba-gondal-lisa-smith-found-makeshift/amp/ (Accessed 25 November 2019).

European Union (EU). Radicalization Awareness Network (RAN) (2017, July). RAN manual: Responses to returnees: Foreign terrorist fighters and their families. Retrieved from https://ec.eurpoa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/ran_br_a4_m10_en.pdf#page=17 (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Evans, M. (2019, 16 October). Alleged jihadist in court accused of plot to blow up St Paul's Cathedral. The Telegraph, 16 October 2019, 6:45 PM. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/10/16/alleged-jihadist-court-accused-plot-blow-st-pauls-cathedral/ (Accessed 23 October 2019).

Global Counterterrorism Forum (n.d. a). Rome memorandum on good practices for rehabilitation and reintegration of violent extremist offenders. Retrieved from https://www.thegctf.org/Portals/1/Documents/Framework%20Documents/2016%20and%20before/GCTF-Rome-Memorandum-ENG.pdf?ver=2016-09-01-121309-677 (Accessed 17 March 2020).

Global Counterterrorism Forum (n.d. b). Good practices on addressing the challenge of returning families of foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs). Retrieved from https://www.thegctf.org/Portals/1/Documents/Framework%20Documents/2018/GCTF-Good-Practices-on-Returning-Families-of-FTFs_ENG.pdf?ver=2018-09-25-101427-323 (Accessed 17 March 2020).

Hamid, S. (2019, 31 October). What America never understood about ISIS: The west rightly decries the Islamic State’s cruelty and violence - but ignores the governance vacuum that the terrorist group filled, at least for a time. The Atlantic, October 31, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/10/what-america-never-understood-about-isis/601156/ (Accessed 22 January 2020).

Hensch, T. & Bilimoria, P. (2012). Re-opening windows: Manipulating critical periods for brain development. Cerebrum, July-August 2012: 11. PMC 3574806. PMID 23447797. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3574806/ (Accessed 16 February 2020).

Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), pp. 377-391.

Available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00977235 (Accessed 16 February 2020).

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2019, 23 July). Syria: Dire conditions for ISIS suspects’ families: Countries should support citizens’ returns, increase aid. July 23, 2019 12:01AM EDT. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/23/syria-dire-conditions-isis-suspects-families (Accessed 15 November 2019).

ICISS (2001). The responsibility to protect. Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), Gareth Evans & Mohamed Sahnoun (Co-Chairs). Ottawa, Canada: The International Development Research Centre, December 2001.

ICRC (1949). Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva. Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross, 12 August 1949.

ICRC. (1949). Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross. 12 August 1949. Retrieved from https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/Treaty.xsp?documentId=AE2D398352C5B028C12563CD002D6B5C&action=openDocument (Accessed 31 January 2020).

International Rescue Committee (IRC) (2019, 16 September). Data analyzed by the IRC reveals staggering health and humanitarian needs of children in Al Hol camp, Northeast Syria - urging repatriation of foreign children. Retrieved from https://www.rescue.org/press-release/data-analyzed-irc-reveals-staggering-health-and-humanitarian-needs-children-al-hol (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Joint Communique by Ministers of the Global Coalition against Daesh (Washington, 14 November 2019). Retrieved from https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy/security-disarmament-and-non-proliferation/news/news-about-defence-and-security/article/joint-communique-by-ministers-of-the-global-coalition-against-daesh-washington (Accessed 13 January 2020).

Jolie, A. (2019, 20 November). Angelina Jolie interviews one of the drafters of the U.N. convention on the rights of children: ‘Children need to know their rights.’ TIME, November 20, 2019, retrieved from https://time.com/5732844/agelina-jolie-and-geraldine-van-buren-on-childrens-rights/?amp=true (Accessed 30 November 2019).

Jones, E. & Harris, V. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-24. Retrieved from https://www.radford.edu/~jaspelme/443/spring-2007/Articles/Jones_n_Harris_1967.pdf (Accessed 10 February 2020).

Kahn, L. (Ed.) (2008). Child soldiers. Brooklyn, NJ: Powerhouse Books.

Kaminer, D., Seedat, S., & Stein, D. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children. World Psychiatry, Vol. 4, No. 2, June 2005. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7146346_Post-traumatic_stress_disorder_in_children (Accessed 4 February 2020).

Kizilhan, J. & Noll-Hussong, M. (2018). Post-traumatic stress disorder among former Islamic State child soldiers in northern Iraq. The British Journal of Psychiatry (2018) 213, pp. 425–429. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.88. (Accessed 5 February 2020)

Kizilhan, J. (2018). PTSD of rape after IS (‘Islamic State’) captivity. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, Vol. 21, No. 5, (October 2018), pp. 517-524. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-018-0824-3 (Accessed 5 February 2020).

Kizilhan, J. (2019). Providing psychosocial care to child soldiers living in post-IS Iraq. The Hague, NL: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT). Retrieved from https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/ICCT-Kizilhan-Providing-Psychosocial-Care-to-Child-Soldiers-Living-in-Post-IS-Iraq-May2019-1.pdf (Accessed 5 February 2020).

Koehler, D. & Popella, P. (2019, June). Getting off: The implications of substance abuse and mental health issues among former ISIS fighters for counterterrorism and deradicalization. Small Wars Journal. Retrieved from https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/getting-implications-substance-abuse-and-mental-health-issues-among-former-isis-fighters (Accessed 28 February 2020).

Kruglanksi, A. & Orehek, E. (2011). The role of the quest for personal significance in motivating terrorism. Ch. in J. Forgas, A. Kruglanski, & K. Williams (Eds.), The Psychology of Social Conflict and Aggression, pp. 153-166. New York, NY: Psychology Press. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticsscholar.org/ed58/bcf3346b5a49f61e3221d69eccedece04.pdf (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Kruglanski, A., Gelfand, M., Bélanger, J., Sheveland, A., Hetiarachi, M., Gunaratna, R. (2014). The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization: How significance quest impacts violent extremism. Political Psychology, Vol. 35, Issue 51, pp. 69-93. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pops.12163 (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Lerner, M. & Simmons, C. (1966). Observer’s reaction to the "innocent victim": Compassion or rejection? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 203–210. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023562 (Accessed 6 February 2020).

London Bridge: Boris Johnson thrusts attack into centre of election battle: Prime minister says terrorists convicted of the most serious offences should never be released from prison. (2019, 30 November). The Guardian, Sat 30 Nov 2019, 2232 GMT. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/nov/30/boris-johnson-london-bridge-terror-attack-hardline-reforms (Accessed 6 December 2019).

Loveluck, L. & Mekhennet, S. (2019, 3 September). At a sprawling tent camp in Syria, ISIS women impose a brutal rule. The Washington Post, September 3, 2019 at 3:18 p.m. ADT. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/at-a-sprawling-tent-camp-in-syria-isis-women-impose-a-brutal-rule/2019/09/03/3fcdfd14-c4ea-11e9-8bf7-cde2d9e09055_story.html (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Loveluck, L., Mekhennet, S., Morris, L., Martins, A. (2019, 23 December). Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2019/12/23/how-isis-women-their-children-are-being-left-stranded-desert/?arc404=true (Accessed 12 January 2020).

Margolin, D., Cook, J., & Winter, C. (2019, 26 October). In Syria, the women and children of ISIS have been forgotten. Foreign Policy, 26 October 2019, 5:48 AM. Retrieved from https://www.foreignpolicy.com/2019/10/26/in-syria-the-women-and-children-of-isis-have-been-forgotten (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Moaveni, A. (2019, 5 September). ‘I’m going to be honest, this baby is going to die’: What does citizenship mean when thousands of American, French and British children have been abandoned to their fates in the desert? The New York Times, Opinion. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/05/opinion/isis-children.html (Accessed 15 January 2020).

Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC). (2019, April). Barriers from birth; Undocumented children in Iraq sentenced to a life on the margins. Retrieved from https://www.nrc.no/resources/reports/barriers-from-birth (Accessed 22 January 2020).

Onishi, N. & Peltier, E. (2019, 17 November). Turkey’s deportations force Europe to face its ISIS militants. The New York Times, retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/17/world/europe/turkey-isis-fighters-europe.amp.html (Accessed 25 November 2019).

Pechtel, P., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective

function: An integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), pp. 55–70. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-2009-2. (Accessed 6 February 2020).

Percy, J. (2019, 3 November). How does the human soul survive atrocity? The New Yorker Magazine, retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/10/31/magazine/iraq-mental-health.html (Accessed 6 February 2020)

Radio Free Europe (27 June 2019, 1142 GMT; 00:30). No country for Islamic State brides. (Accessed 28 October 2020).

Retzlaff, R., von Syndow, K., Beher, S., Haun, M. & Schweitzer J. (2013). The efficacy of systemic therapy for internalizing and other disorders of childhood and adolescence: A systematic review of 38 randomised trials. Family Process 52, No. 4 (2013), pp. 619-652. Retrieved from https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2650865 (Accessed 7 February 2020).

Schmidt, C. (2007). Environmental connections: A deeper look into mental illness. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007 Aug; 115(8): A404–A410. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1940091/ and doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a404 (Accessed 16 January 2020).

Shamima Begum will not be allowed here, Bangladesh says, BBC News, 21 February 2019. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-47312207 (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Sherin, J. & Nemeroff, C. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder: the neurobiological impact of psychological trauma. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, September 2011, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.: 263–278. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182008/ (Accessed 3 February 2020).

Shonkoff, J., Boyce, W., & McEwen, B. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(21), pp. 2252–2259. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.754. (Accessed 4 February 2020).

Siddique, H. (2018, 22 March). Mosques launch anti-radicalisation scheme as alternative to Prevent. The Guardian, Thu 22 Mar 2018, 1755 GMT. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/mar/22/mosques-launch-anti-radicalisation-scheme-as-alternative-to-prevent (Accessed 15 November 2019).

Simon, H. (1947). Administrative behavior: A study of decision-making processes in administrative organizations. New York, NY: The MacMillan Company.

Simon, H. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Feb., 1955), pp. 99-118.

Simon, H. (1956). Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological Review, Vol. 63, No. 2, 1956, pp. 129-138.

Simon, H. (1957). A behavioral model of rational choice, in models of man, social and rational: Mathematical essays on rational human behavior in a social setting. New York, NY: Wiley.

Singer, P. (2005). Children at war. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Sly, L. (2019, 19 June). New suffering for the children of the ISIS caliphate as hunger and sickness spread. The Washington Post, World, June 19, 2019 at 6:00 a.m. ADT. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/new-suffering-for-the-children-of-the-isis-caliphate-as-hunger-and-sickness-spread/2019/06/18/3824fe6c-87a2-11e9-9d73-e2ba6bbf1b9b_story.html (Accessed 4 November 2019).

Sly, L. (2019, 4 October). Syria camp is at risk of falling under ISIS control, Kurdish general says. The Washington Post, World, October 4, 2019 at 4:14 PM EDT. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/militant-women-poised-to-take-control-of-isis-camp-syrian-kurdish-general-says/2019/10/04/72985c18-e5ff-11e9-b0a6-3d03721b85ef_story.html?outputType=amp (Accessed 4 November 2019).

Spitz, R. (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, No. 1, pp. 53 – 74. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00797308.1945.11823126 (Accessed 4 February 2020).

Spitz, R. (1946). Hospitalism: A follow-up report. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, pp.113-117. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00797308.1946.11823540 (Accessed 4 February 2020).

Srivastava, R. (Ed.) (2007). The healthcare professional’s guide to clinical cultural competence. Toronto, Canada: Elsevier Canada.

Streatham attacker freed from jail days ago after terror conviction. (2020, 3 February). The Guardian, Monday 3 February 2020. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/feb/02/streatham-attacker-was-released-terror-offender-sudesh-amman (Accessed 3 February 2020).

Struys, B. (2019, 28 March). Belgian children of IS fighters died in Syria. (trans.). De Morgen, 28 March 2019, 6:01. Retrieved from https://www.demorgen.be/nieuws/belgische-kinderen-van-is-strijders-overleden-in-syrie~b9b15d55/?referer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F (Accessed 21 January 2020).

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2015). Types of trauma and violence. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/trauma-violence/types (Accessed 24 January 2020).

UK to repatriate British orphans of ‘Islamic State’ fighters. DW, 21 November 2019. Retrieved from https://amp.dw.com/en/uk-to-repatriate-british-orphabs-of-islamic-state-fighters/a-51359600 (Accessed 15 January 2020).

United Kingdom (1981). British Nationality Act. Retrieved from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1981/61 (Accessed 22 November 2019).

United Kingdom (2016). Government response to the review of Islamist extremism in prisons, probation and youth justice. Ministry of Justice, August, 2016. (Acheson Report). Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/547033/moj-gov-response-aug-2016.pdf (Accessed 17 February 2020).

United Nations (1948). Universal declaration of human rights. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ (Accessed 30 October 2019).

United Nations (1951). Convention and protocol relating to the status of refugees. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10 (Accessed 30 October 2019).

United Nations (1961). Convention on the reduction of statelessness. Retrieved from https://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/6_1_1961.pdf (Accessed 31 October 2019).

United Nations (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx (Accessed 31 October 2019).

United Nations (2000). Optional protocol to the convention on the rights of the child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/OPACCRC.aspx (Accessed 31 October 2019).

United Nations. High Commissioner for Refugees. (2019, 19 June). Figures at a glance. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html (Accessed 15 January 2020).

United Nations, Human Rights Council (HRC) (2019, 2 July). Statement by Mr. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, Chair of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic at the 41st Session of the UN Human Rights Council, Geneva, 2 July 2019. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=24773&LangID=E (Accessed 15 January 2020).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) (2019, 29 May). Syria: Humanitarian response in Al Hol camp, Situation Report No. 4 – as of 29 May 2019. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Al%20Hol%20SitRep%20No.4_29May2019_FINAL.pdf (Accessed 21 January 2020).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) (2019, 4 August). North East Syria: Al Hol camp service mapping snapshot - As of 01 August 2019. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/syrian-arab-republic/north-east-syria-al-hol-camp-service-mapping-snapshot-01-august-2019 (Accessed 16 January 2020).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) (2019, 16 September). IRC data reveals staggering child mortality in Al Hol camp, Northeast Syria - urging repatriation of foreign children. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/syrian-arab-republic/irc-data-reveals-staggering-child-mortality-al-hol-camp-northeast-syria (Accessed 16 January 2020).

United Nations. Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA). (2019, 29 September). Syrian Arab Republic, North East Syria, Al Hol camp. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/syrian-arab-republic/north-east-syria-al-hol-camp-service-mapping-snapshot-29-september-2019 (Accessed 28 October 2019).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) (2019, 25 December). Syrian Arab Republic: North East Syria Displacement (18 December 2019), retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/map/syrian-arab-republic/syrian-arab-republic-north-east-syria-displacement-18-december-2019 (Accessed 16 January 2020).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) Services: Humanitarian Assistance (2019, 29 December). Syrian Arab Republic NES Displacement Returns 18 Dec 2019 [EN], retrieved from https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/operations/syria/infographic/syrian-arab-republic-nes-displacement-returns-18-dec-2019-en (Accessed 16 January 2020).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA), Financial Tracking Services (2019, 31 December). 2019 Syria Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) Funding Overview. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/hrp_weekly_funding_status_191231.pdf (Accessed 16 January 2020).

United Nations, Office of the Commissioner for Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) (2020, 13 January). Syrian Arab Republic: North East Syria: Al Hol camp (as of 13 January 2020), retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/syrian-arab-republic/syrian-arab-republic-north-east-syria-al-hol-camp-13-january-2020 (Accessed 16 January 2020)

United Nations. Office of Counter-Terrorism (2019). Handbook Children affected by the foreign-fighter phenomenon: Ensuring a child rights-based approach. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/counterterrorism/ctitf/sites/www.un.org.counterterrorism.ctitf/files/ftf_handbook_web_reduced.pdf (Accessed 19 March 2020).

United Nations. Office of the Special Representative to the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict (SRSG CAC). (2013[2009]). The six grave violations against children during armed conflict: The legal foundation. Working Paper No.1, October 2009, updated November 2013. Retrieved from https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/publications/WorkingPaper-1_SixGraveViolationsLegalFoundation.pdf (Accessed 24 January 2020).

United Nations Security Council (2014). UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2178 S/RES/2178 (2014). Foreign Terrorist Fighters. Adopted by the Security Council at its 7272nd meeting, on

September 2014. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/s/res/2178-%282014%29 (Accessed 23 October 2019).

United Nations Security Council (2017). UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) S/RES 2396 (2017). Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, retrieved from http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/2396 (Accessed 23 October 2019).

United Nations Security Council. (2019, 19 December). Describing vast scale of need, humanitarian official urges Security Council to renew authorization for lifesaving cross-border aid delivery in Syria. Security Council 8694th Meeting (A.M.). SC/14061. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/sc14061.doc.htm (Accessed 16 January 2020).

United Nations. UNICEF (2007). The Paris principles: Principles and guidelines on children associated with armed forces or armed groups. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/mali/media/1561/file/ParisPrinciples.pdf (Accessed 31 January 2020).

United States of America (U.S.A.) (2020, 14 February). Benzodiazepines and PTSD. Veterans’Affairs, Health Care, PTSD: National Center for PTSD. Retreived from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand_tx/benzos_ptsd.asp (Accessed 17 February 2020).

U.S. policy toward Syria, (Council for Foreign Relations). C-Span, 2 October 2019. Retrieved from https://www.c-span.org/video/?464882-1/us-policy-syria (Accessed 31 October 2019)

Webber, D., Chernikova, M., Kruglanski, A., Gelfand, M., Hettiarachchi, M., Gunaratna, R., Lafreniere, M-A, & Bélanger, J. (2017). Deradicalizing detained terrorists. Political Psychology, Vol. XX, No. XX, March 2017. doi:10.1111/pops.12428 (Accessed 1November 2019).

Wright, R. (2019, 15 April). “The Dangerous Dregs of ISIS,” The New Yorker, retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/news/dispatch/the-dangerous-dregs-of-isis (Accessed 1 November 2019).

Wright, R. (2019, 3 June). The kids of the Islamic State. Foreign Policy, 3 June 2019, 10:58 A.M. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/06/03/the-kids-of-the-islamic-state-al-hol-refugees-isis/ (Accessed 21 January 2020).

Zeanah, C., Smyke, A., Koga, S., & Carlson, E. (The Bucharest Early Intervention Project Core Group) (2005). Attachment in institutionalized and community children in Romania. Child Development, September/October 2005, Volume 76, Number 5, pp. 1015 – 1028. Retrieved from https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=6B7D5C099D869BCA72DE3AD7E28095E9?doi=10.1.1.417.6482&rep=rep1&type=pdf (Accessed 19 January 2020).

Zelin, A. (2019). Wiliyat al-Hol: Remaining and incubating the next Islamic State generation. Washington Institute Policy for Near East Policy, Policy Note (PN) 70, October 2019. Retrieved from https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyNote70-Zelin.pdf (Accessed 15 January 2020).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Ian MacVicar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)