Disengaging and Rehabilitating High-Value Detainees: A Small-Scale Qualitative Study

Mandeep K. Dhami, Jane Goodman-Delahunty, Natalie Martschuk, Sang Cheung, Ian Belton

Abstract


In an era of international terrorism, interviews with high-value detainees may have the dual purpose of extracting useful information and of disengagement. We conducted a small-scale, qualitative study using in-depth, individual interviews with 11 experienced interviewers in the Southeast Asia region and Australia, in order to provide insights into the types of interviewing strategies employed in terrorist rehabilitation. Our findings highlight the potential efficacy of creating a physically comfortable and relaxed interview setting, and of using interview strategies that focus on rapport-building, principles of social persuasion and elements of procedural justice, along with a patient and flexible stance to questioning. We suggest that interviewers performing rehabilitation interviews with high-value detainees ought to be trained to use the social approach to interviewing.


Keywords


Deradicalization; Rehabilitation; Terrorist; Police Interviewing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbe, A., & Brandon, S. E. (2013). The role of rapport in investigative interviewing: A review. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10, 237–249. doi:10.1002/jip.1386

Alison, L. J., Alison, E., Noose, G., Elntib, S., & Christiansen, P. (2013). Why tough tactics fail and rapport gets results: Observing rapport-based interpersonal techniques (ORBIT) to generate useful information from terrorists. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19, 411-431. doi:10.1037/a0034564

Alison, L., Alison, E., Noone, G., Elntib, S., Waring, S., & Christiansen, P. (2014). The efficacy of rapport-based techniques for minimizing counter-interrogation tactics amongst a field sample of terrorists. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20, 421–430. doi:10.1037/law0000021

Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Baldwin, J. (1993). Police interview techniques: Establishing truth or proof? British Journal of Criminology, 33, 325-352.

Bjørgo, T. (2005, September). Reducing recruitment and promoting disengagement from extremist groups: The case of racist sub-cultures. In C. Benard (Ed.), A future for the young: Options for helping Middle Eastern youth escape the trap of radicalization. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, WR-354. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2006/RAND_WR354.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Brandon, S. E., Wells, S., & Seale, C. (2018). Science-based interviewing: Information elicitation. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 15, 133–148. doi: 10.1002/jip.1496

Bull, R., & Milne, R. (2004). Attempts to improve police interviewing of suspects. In G. D. Lassiter (Ed.) Interrogations, confessions and entrapment. New York: Plenum.

Cherney, A (2018a). Evaluating interventions to disengage extremist offenders: a study of the proactive integrated support model (PRISM). Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression. doi:10.1080/19434472.2018.1495661

Cherney, A. (2018b). Supporting disengagement and reintegration: Qualitative outcomes from a custody-based counter radicalisation intervention. Journal for Deradicalization, 17, 1-26.

Chowdhury Fink, N., & El-Said, M. (2011). Transforming terrorists: Examining international efforts to address violent extremism. New York, International Peace Institute. Retrieved from https://www.ipinst.org/2011/04/transforming-terrorists-examining-international-efforts-to-address-violent-extremism (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Christiansen, P., Alison, L., & Alison, E. (2018). Well begun is half done: Interpersonal behaviours in distinct field interrogations with high-value detainees. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 23, 68-84. doi:10.1111/lcrp.12111

Cialdini, R. B. (2001). The science of persuasion. Scientific American, 284, 76-81. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0201-76

Collins, K., & Carthy, N. (2019). No rapport, no comment: The relationship between rapport and communication during investigative interviews with suspects. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 16, 18-31. doi.org/10.1002/jip.1517

Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 457–475. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.457

Clark, M. (2019). Motivational interviewing for deradicalization: Increasing readiness to change. Journal for Deradicalization, 20(Fall), 47-74.

Dalgard-Neilsen, A. (2013). Promoting exit from violent extremism: Themes and approaches, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 36, 99–115.

Dawson, E., Hartwig, M., Brimbal, L., & Denisenkov, P. (2017). A room with a view: Setting influences information disclosure in investigative interviews. Law and Human Behavior, 41, 333-343.

Dean, C., Lloyd, M., Keane, C., Powys, B., & Randhawa, K. (2018). Intervening with extremist offenders: A pilot study. Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/727966/Intervening_with_Extremist_Offenders_A_Pilot_Study.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Dhami, M. K., Goodman-Delahunty, J., & Desai, S. (2017). Development of an information sheet providing rapport advice for interpreters in police interviews. Police Practice and Research, 18, 291-305. doi:10.1080/15614263.2017.1291580

Dixon, D. (1997). Law in policing: Legal regulation and police practices. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Dixon, D. (2007). Interrogating images: Audio-visually recorded police questioning of suspects. Sydney Australia: Sydney Institute of Criminology.

Dixon, D. (2008). Interrogating terrorist suspects: Criminal justice and control process in three Australian cases. University of New South Wales Faculty of Law Research Series, 24, 1-30. Retrieved from https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/UNSWLRS/2008/24.html (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80-92. doi:10.1177/160940690600500107

Ferguson, N. (2016). Disengaging from terrorism: A Northern Irish experience. Journal for Deradicalization, 1-23.

Galinsky, A. D., Maddux, W. W., Gilin, D., & White, J. B. (2008). Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent: The differential effects of perspective taking and empathy in negotiations. Psychological Science, 19, 378-384. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02096.x

Garfinkel, R. (2007). Personal transformations: Moving from violence to peace. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved from http://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/sr186.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Gelles, M., McFadden, R., Borum, R., & Vossekuil, B. (2006). Al-Qaeda related suspects: A law enforcement perspective. In T. Williamson (Ed.), Investigative interviewing: Rights, research, regulation (pp. 23-41). Devon, UK: Willan.

Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2010). Four ingredients: New recipes for procedural justice in Australian policing. Policing: A Journal of Policing and Practice, 4, 403-410.

Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2015). Insights on investigative interviewing from practitioners and suspects in Indonesia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka. In D. Walsh, G.E. Oxburgh, A.D. Redlich, & T. Myklebust (Eds.), International developments and practices in investigative interviewing and interrogation: Volume II Suspects (pp. 18-33). Abingdon, UK: Routledge Press.

Goodman-Delahunty, J., Corbo Crehan, A., & Brandon, S. (2020). The ethical practice of police psychology. In P. Marques & N. Paulino (Eds.), Police psychology: New trends in forensic psychological science. Elsevier Academic Press.

Goodman-Delahunty, J., & Howes, L. M. (2016). Social persuasion to develop rapport in high stakes interviews: A qualitative analysis of Asian-Pacific policing practices. Policing & Society: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 26, 270-290.

Goodman-Delahunty, J., & Martschuk, N. (2018). Securing reliable information in investigative interviews: Coercive and noncoercive strategies preceding turning points. Police Practice and Research. doi:10.1080/15614263.2018.1531752

Goodman-Delahunty, J., Martschuk, N., & Dhami, M. K. (2014). Interviewing high value detainees: Securing cooperation and reliable disclosures. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 883-897.

Goodman-Delahunty, J., O’Brien, K., & Gumbert-Jourjon, T. (2013). Police professionalism in interviews with high value detainees: Cross-cultural endorsement of procedural justice. The Journal of the Institute of Justice & International Studies, 13, 65-82.

Gunaratna, R. (2013). Countering extremism and building social resilience through community engagement. In R. Gunaratna, J. Jerard & S. M. Nasir (eds.), Countering extremism: Building social resilience through community engagement (pp. 1-19). London: Imperial College Press.

Harris, D., Turner, R., Garrett, I. & Atkinson, S. (2011). Understanding the psychology of gang violence: Implications for designing effective violence interventions. London: Ministry of Justice Research Series 2/11.

Huang, K.-J., & Teoh, Y.-S. (2019). Rapport building in suspect interviewing: A comparison of relationship- and procedure-based approaches in a laboratory setting. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. Advance online publication.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/law0000209

Hettiarachchi, M. (2013). Sri Lanka’s rehabilitation program: A new frontier in counter terrorism and counter insurgency. Prism: A Journal of the Center for Complex Operations, 4(2), 105-122.

Hettiarachchi, M. (2018). Rehabilitation to deradicalise detainees and inmates: A counter-terrorism strategy. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 13, 267-283. doi:10.1080/18335330.2018.1476774

Horan, R., Dean, C., & Sutcliffe, P. (2015). Reducing gang-related prison violence. Prison Service Journal, 221, 42-46.

Horgan, J. (2008). Deradicalization or disengagement? A process in need of clarity and a counterterrorism initiative in need of evaluation. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2, 3-8. Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/32/html (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Institute for Strategic Dialogue. (2012). Tackling extremism: De-radicalization and disengagement. Policy Briefing, 1-23.

International Crisis Group. (2007). ‘Deradicalization’ and Indonesian prisons (Asia Report No. 12). Brussels, author. Retrieved from https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/indonesia/deradicalisation-and-indonesian-prisons (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Istiqomah, M. (2011). De-radicalization program in Indonesian prisons: Reformation on the correctional institution, Proceedings of the 1st Australian Counter Terrorism Conference, Edith Cowan University. Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=act (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Kelly, C. E., Miller, J. C., Kleinman, S. M., & Redlich, A. (2013). A taxonomy of interrogation methods. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19, 165-178. doi:10.1037/a0030310

Kidwell, M., & Martínez, E. G. (2010). ‘Let me tell you about myself ’: A method for suppressing subject talk in a ‘soft accusation’ interrogation. Discourse Studies, 12, 65–89. doi:10.1177/1461445609346771

Krippendorff, K. (2011). Computing Krippendorff’s alpha-reliability. Philadelphia, PA: Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/asc_papers/43 (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Leahy-Harland, S., & Bull, R. (2017). Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviews. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32, 138-151. doi.org/10.1007/s11896- 016-9207-8

Marsden, S. V. (2017). Reintegrating extremists: Deradicalisation and desistance. London: Palgrave Pivot.

Maruna, S. (2000). Desistance from crime and offender rehabilitation: A tale of two research literatures. Offender Programs Report, 4, 1-13.

Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C., (2018). Social influence in investigative interviews: The effects of reciprocity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 32, 163-170. doi:10.1002/acp.3390

Meissner, C. A., Redlich, A. D., Bhatt, S., & Brandon, S. (2012). Interview and interrogation methods and their effects on true and false confessions. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012, 13, 1-52. doi:10.4073/csr.2012.13

Moston, S. J., & Engelberg, T. (1993). Police questioning techniques in tape recorded interviews with criminal suspects. Policing and Society, 6, 61–75.

Moston, S. J., Stephenson, G. M., & Williamson, T. M. (1992). The effects of case characteristics on suspect behaviour during police questioning. British Journal of Criminology, 32, 23-40.

Neumann, P. R. (2010). Prisons and terrorism: Radicalisation and de-radicalisation in 15 Countries. London, International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence. Retrieved from https://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/ICSR-Report-Prisons-and-Terrorism-Radicalisation-and-De-radicalisation-in-15-Countries.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Okken, V., van Rompay, T., & Pruyn, A. (2013). Room to move: On spatial constraints and self-disclosure during intimate conversations. Environment and Behavior, 45, 737-760. doi:10.1177/0013916512444780

Oleszkiewicz, S., & Granhag, P.-A. (2020). Establishing cooperation and eliciting information: Semi-cooperative sources’ affective resistance and cognitive strategies. In R. Bull & I. Blandon-Gitlin (Eds.)., The Routledge international handbook of legal and investigative psychology (pp. 255-267). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Ord, B., Shaw, G., & Green, T. (2008). Investigative interviewing explained (2nd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W: LexisNexis Butterworths.

Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2005). Allport’s intergroup contact hypothesis: Its history and influence. In J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. P. Rudman (Eds.), Reflecting on the nature of prejudice (pp. 263-277). Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell.

Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, S. L., Ghez, J. J., & Boucek, C. (2010). Deradicalizing Islamist extremists. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG1053.html (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Roberts, K. A. (2011). Police interviews with terrorist suspects: Risks, ethical interviewing and procedural justice. The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 13, 124-134. doi:10.1108/14636641111134369

Rowden, E., Wallace, A., Tait, D., Hanson, M., & Jones, D. (2013). Gateways to justice: Design and operational guidelines for remote participation in court proceedings. University of Western Sydney: Sydney. Retrieved from: https://courtofthefuture.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Gateways-To-Justice-GUIDELINES_upload.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Russano, M. B., Narchet, F. M., Kleinman, S. M., & Meissner, C. A. (2014). Structured interviews of experienced HUMINT interrogators. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 847-859.

Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd Ed.). London: Sage.

Sivasubramaniam, D., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2019). Strategies of professional interviewers in the Asia Pacific. Police Practice and Research. doi:10.1080/15614263.2019.1628756

Spalek, B., & Davies, L. (2012). Mentoring in relation to violent extremism: A study of role, purpose, and outcomes. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35, 354-368.

Stephenson, G. M., & Moston, S. J. (1994). Police interrogation. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 151-157. doi:10.1080/10683169408411948

Sumpter, C. (2017). Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society. Journal for Deradicalization, 112-147.

Surmon-Böhr, F., Alison, L., Christiansen, P., & Alison, E. (2020). The right to silence and the permission to talk: Motivational interviewing and high-value detainees. American Psychologist. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000588

Tonks, S., & Stephenson, Z. (2019). Disengagement from streetgangs: A systematic review of the literature. Psychology, Psychiatry and Law, 26, 21-49.

Van den Bos, K. (2018). Why people radicalize. New York, US: Oxford University Press.

Wachi, T., Watanabe, K., Yokota, K., Otsuka, Y., Kuraishi, H., & Lamb, M. (2014). Police interviewing styles and confessions in Japan. Psychology, Crime & Law, 20, 673–694. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2013.854791

Weilnböck, H. (2012). Anti hate crime and deradicalisation interventions – in prison and community: The results of recent good practice studies in Germany and internationally. Berlin: Violence Prevention Network. Retrieved from https://www.niacro.co.uk/sites/default/files/publications/09%20Anti%20Hate%20Crime%20and%20Deradicalisation%20Interventions.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).

Woodward, M., Amin, A., & Rohmaniyah, I. (2010). Lessons from Aceh terrorist de-radicalization (Research Report No. 1001). Arizona State University, Consortium for Strategic Communication. Retrieved from http://csc.asu.edu/wp-content/uploads/pdf/124.pdf (accessed: February 21, 2020).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Mandeep K. Dhami, Jane Goodman-Delahunty, Natalie Martschuk, Sang Cheung, Ian Belton

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)