Evaluation of a School Campaign to Reduce Hatred

Elena Savoia, Max Su, Nigel Harriman, Marcia A. Testa

Abstract


Combating violent extremism can involve organizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) preventing violent extremism (PVE) programs and campaigns. In recent years, hundreds of school campaigns have been launched around the world but very few have been evaluated. In this manuscript, we present the results of the evaluation of one of these initiatives.  Study objectives consisted of: 1) Assessing the impact of the campaign in increasing students’ exposure to messages of acceptance and decreasing exposure to hate messages in the school environment, 2) Assess the impact of the campaign in improving students’ attitudes towards ethnocultural diversity. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study with control groups. The study was implemented in Utah in schools of 8th and 9th-grade levels. Two schools were identified as campaign implementation sites, and two schools of similar socio-economic and ethnocultural characteristics were identified as the control sites.  We utilized univariate and multivariate regression analysis to assess changes in students’ exposure to hate messages and attitudes towards ethnocultural diversity. Our study findings can be useful for the development of future campaigns and educational programs as they highlight the importance of ethnocultural empathic awareness in improving students’ attitudes regarding ethnocultural diversity.


Keywords


Hate; Campaign; Communication; Extremism; Evaluation

Full Text:

PDF

References


“Strategic Implementation Plan for Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States” (Executive Office of the President of the United States National Security Staff, Washington, DC, 2016), p. 1. Available at https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2016_strategic_implementation_plan_empowering_local_partners_prev.pdf.

EdVenture Partners. (2017). Peer to Peer: Facebook Global Digital Challenge. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.edventurepartners.com/peer-to-peer-facebook-global-digital-challenge/

Moffett, K., & Sgro, T. (2016). School-Based CVE Strategies. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 668(1), 145-164. doi:10.1177/0002716216672435

Macnair, L., & Frank, R. (2017). Voices Against Extremism: A case study of a community-based CVE counter-narrative campaign. Journal for Deradicalization, Spring 2017(10), 227-268.

Kombat with Kindness. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/kwkindness

Pistone I, Eriksson E, Beckman U, Mattson C, Sager A. A scoping review of interventions for preventing and countering violent extremism: Current status and implications for future research. Journal for Deradicalization, Summer 2019 (19), 2363-9849.

Stevens T , Neumann PR. Countering Online Radicalization. A strategy for action. Available at: https://cst.org.uk/docs/countering_online_radicalisation1.pdf Accessed on December 12 2019.

Pachter, L. M., Szalacha, L. A., Bernstein, B. A., & Coll, C. G. (2010). Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY): properties of a self-report instrument for research on children's health and development. Ethnicity & health, 15(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/13557850903383196

Wang, Y.-W., Davidson, M. M., Yakushko, O. F., Savoy, H. B., Tan, J. A., & Bleier, J. K. (2003). The Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy: Development, validation, and reliability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(2), 221-234. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.50.2.221

Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, A. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 3, 335-371. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x

Lord, F. M. (1980). Applications of item response theory to practical testing problems: Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates.

Wilner, A., & Rigato, B. (2017). The 60 Days of PVE Campaign: Lessons on Organizing an Online, Peer-to-Peer, Counter-radicalization Program. Journal for Deradicalization, Fall 2017(12), 147-174.

Akbarzadeh, S. (2013). Investing in Mentoring and Educational Initiatives:The Limits of De-Radicalisation Programmes in Australia. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 33(4), 451-463. doi:10.1080/13602004.2013.866347

Briggs, R., & Feve, S. (2013). Review of Programs to Counter Narratives of Violent Extremism: What Works and What are the Implications for Government? Institute for Strategic Dialogue.

Finn, M., Momani, B., Opatowski, M., & Opondo, M. (2016). Youth Evaluations of CVE/PVE Programming in Kenya in Context. Journal for Deradicalization, Summer 2016(7), 164-224.

Reskin, B. (2012). The Race Discrimination System. Annual Review of Sociology, 38(1), 17-35. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145508

Eres, R., & Molenberghs, P. (2013). The influence of group membership on the neural correlates involved in empathy. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 176-176. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00176

Han, S. (2018). Neurocognitive Basis of Racial Ingroup Bias in Empathy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.013

Gutsell, J. N., & Inzlicht, M. (2012). Intergroup differences in the sharing of emotive states: neural evidence of an empathy gap. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 7(5), 596-603. doi:10.1093/scan/nsr035

Dore, R., Hoffman, K., Lillard, A., & Trawalter, S. (2014). Children’s racial bias in perceptions of others’ pain. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12038


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Elena Savoia, Max Su, Nigel Harriman, Marcia A. Testa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)