Research Note on Immigrant Youth Radicalization and Terrorism: Pre- and Post-Migration Considerations
Keywords:Radicalization, Refugees, Immigration, Youth, Migration, Resilient Communities
AbstractThis theoretical paper is based on working experience with newcomer refugee youth in Canada. It calls for an understanding of the refugee pre- and post-migration experience in an attempt to answer why some youth are drawn to radicalization and engagement in terrorism. This comprehension could lend to designing a global refugee youth radicalization and terrorism prevention strategy by creating resiliency within the refugee camps and within the host community of resettlement. The paper presents 12 propositions which need to be tested by future empirical research.
Aubrey, M., Aubrey, R. Brodrick, F., & Brooks, C. (2016). Why young Syrians choose to fight. Human Rights Documents Online, 5-8. doi: 10.1163/2210-1975_hrd-1920-2016024
Bhui, K., & Dinos, S. (2012). Psychological Process and Pathways to Radicalization. Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, S5. doi:10.4172/2157-2526.s5-003
Crenshaw, M. (1998). The logic of terrorism: Terrorist behavior as a product of strategic choice. In Reich, W. Ed. Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Dawson, L. L. (2017). Sketch of a social ecology model for explaining homegrown terrorist Rradicalisation. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague 8, no.1. https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ICCT-Dawson-Social-Ecology-Model-of-Radicalisation-Jan2017-2.pdf (accessed December 2, 2018)
Dzhekova, R. et al. (2016). Understanding radicalisation review of literature. Center for the Study of Democracy. http://www.csd.bg/artShow.php?id=17560 (accessed December 2, 2018)
Eleftheriadou, M. (2018). Refugee Radicalization/Militarization in the Age of the European Refugee Crisis: A Composite Model. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-22. doi:10.1080/09546553.2018.1516643
Fulmer, I. S. (2012). Editor’s comments: The craft of writing theory articles - variety and similarity in AMR. Academy of Management Review. 37(3): 327–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amr.2012.0026 (accessed December 2, 2018)
Joose, P., Bucerius, S. M. & Thompson, S. K. (2015). Narratives and counternarratives: Somali-Canadians on recruitment as foreign fighters to Al-Shabaab. The British Journal of Criminology, 55(4): 811–832. https://academic.oup.com/bjc/article/55/4/811/542706 https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azu103 (accessed December 2, 2018)
Knapton, H. M. (2014). The recruitment and radicalisation of Western citizens: Does ostracism have a role in homegrown terrorism? Journal of European Psychology Students, 5(1), 38-48. https://jeps.efpsa.org/articles/10.5334/jeps.bo/ (accessed December 2, 2018)
Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2010) Practical Research: Planning and Design, Ninth Edition. NYC: Merril.
Martin-Rayo, F. (2011). Countering radicalization in refugee camps: How education can help defeat AQAP. https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/legacy/files/Countering_radicalization-Martin-Rayo.pdf (accessed December 2, 2018)
Milton, D., Spencer, M., & Findley, M. (2013). Radicalism of the Hopeless: Refugee Flows and Transnational Terrorism. International Interactions, 39(5), 621-645. doi:10.1080/03050629.2013.834256
Paulussen, C., Nijman, J. & Lismont, K. (2017). Mental Health and the foreign fighter phenomenon: A case study from the Netherlands. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism. https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/ICCT-Paulussen-Nijman-Lismont-Mental-Health-and-the-Foreign-Fighter-Phenomenon-March-2017.pdf (accessed December 2, 2018)
Reynolds, A. D. & Crea, T. M. (2017). The integration of immigrant youth in schools and friendship networks. Population Research and Policy Review, 36(4), 501-529. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-017-9434-4
Rink, A. & Sharma, K. (2018). The determinants of religious radicalization: Evidence from Kenya, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6): 1229-1261. https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/172490/1/f-20315-full-text-Rink-et_al-Determinants-v3.pdf (accessed December 2, 2018)
Robinson, L., Gardee,R., Chaudhry, F. & Collins, H. (2017) Muslim youth in Britain: Acculturation, radicalization, and implications for social work practice/training. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 36(1-2), 266-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2017.1311244 (accessed December 2, 2018)
Rousseau, C., Hassan, G. & Oulhote, Y. (2017). And if there were another way out? Questioning the prevalent radicalization models. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 108: 5-6. https://journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/article/viewFile/6233/3756 (accessed December 2, 2018)
Schils, N. & Verhage, A. (2017). Understanding How and Why Young People Enter Radical or Violent Extremist Groups. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 11, 1-17. doi: 10.4119/UNIBI/ijcv.473
Simi, P., & Windisch, S. (2018). Why Radicalization Fails: Barriers to Mass Casualty Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-20. doi:10.1080/09546553.2017.1409212 Veldhuis, T. & Staun, J. (2009). Islamist radicalisation: A root cause model. https://www.diis.dk/files/media/publications/import/islamist_radicalisation.veldhuis_and_staun.pdf (accessed December 2, 2018)
Sude, B., Stebbins, D., & Weilant, S. (2015). Lessening the Risk of Refugee Radicalization. Lessons for the Middle East from Past Crises. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
Whetten, D. A. (1989). What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 14(4): 490-495.
The JD Journal for Deradicalization uses a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) Licence. You are free to share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following conditions:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, andindicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.