Reintegrating Terrorists in the Netherlands: Evaluating the Dutch approach

Liesbeth van der Heide, Bart Schuurman

Abstract


This article presents an in-depth evaluation of a specialized reintegration initiative within the Dutch Probation Service focused on individuals convicted or suspected of involvement in terrorism. Using 72 interviews with program staff as well as several of their clients, the authors assess the initiative’s program theory, its day-to-day implementation and provide a qualified assessment of its overall effectiveness in the 2016 to 2018 period. The results suggest that the initiative is based on a sound understanding of how and why individuals may deradicalize or disengage from terrorism behaviorally, but that it continues to face serious challenges in terms of accurately defining success and systematically gathering objective indicators of its attainment. As terrorism remains a key challenge for societies across the globe, the relevance of these findings extends beyond the Netherlands to all academics, policymakers and practitioners working to design, implement and assess terrorist reintegration programs.

Keywords


Reintegration; Deradicalization; Disengagement; Rehabilitation; Terrorism; Extremism Evaluation; Parole; Probation; the Netherlands

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aarten, P. G. M., Mulder, E., & Pemberton, A. (2018). The narrative of victimization and deradicalization: an expert view. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 41(7), 557-572. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2017.1311111

Ahmad, H. (2017). Youth de-radicalization: a Canadian framework. Journal for Deradicalization(12), 119-168.

Altier, M. B., Boyle, E. L., & Horgan, J. G. (Forthcoming). Returning to the fight: an empirical analysis of terrorist re-engagement and recidivism.

Altier, M. B., Thoroughgood, C. N., & Horgan, J. G. (2014). Turning away from terrorism: lessons from psychology, sociology, and criminology. Journal of Peace Research, 51(5), 647-661. doi:10.1177/0022343314535946

Ashour, O. (2007). Lions tamed? An inquiry into the causes of de-radicalization of armed Islamist movements: the case of the Egyptian Islamic Group. Middle East Journal, 61(4), 596-625.

Azam, Z., & Fatima, S. B. (2017). Mishal: a case study of a deradicalization and emancipation program in Swat Valley, Pakistan. Journal for Deradicalization(11), 1-28.

Banlaoi, R. C. (2017). Counter-terrorism measures and de-radicalization efforts in Southeast Asia: a view from the Philippines. In H. Glaser (Ed.), Talking to the enemy: deradicalization and disengagement of terrorists (pp. 91-104). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Barkindo, A., & Bryans, S. (2016). De-radicalising prisoners in Nigeria: developing a basic prison based de-radicalisation programme. Journal for Deradicalization(7), 1-25.

Barrelle, K. (2011). From terrorist to citizen. Paper presented at the Australian Political Science Association Conference 2011, Canberra, Australia. http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/gtrec/files/2013/04/barrelle-2011-apsa-paper.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Barrelle, K. (2015). Pro-integration: disengagement from and life after extremism. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism & Political Aggression, 7(2), 129-142. doi:10.1080/19434472.2014.988165

Barrett, R., & Bokhari, L. (2009). Deradicalization and rehabilitation programmes targeting religious terrorists and extremists in the Muslim world: an overview. In J. Horgan & T. Bjørgo (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: individual and collective disengagement (pp. 170-180). London / New York: Routledge.

Basit, A. (2015). Countering violent extremism: evaluating Pakistan's counter-radicalization and de-radicalization initiatives. IPRI Journal, 15(2), 44-68.

Basra, R., & Neumann, P. R. (2017). Crime as jihad: developments in the crime-terror nexus in Europe. CTC Sentinel, 10(9), 1-6.

Bastug, M. F., & Evlek, U. K. (2016). Individual disengagement and deradicalization pilot program in Turkey: methods and outcomes. Journal for Deradicalization(8), 25-45.

Bell, K. (2015). Looking outward: enhancing Australia's deradicalisation and disengagement programs. Retrieved from http://apo.org.au/node/58347 Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Berkell, K. (2017). Risk reduction in terrorism cases: sentencing and the post-conviction environment. Journal for Deradicalization(13), 276-341.

Bjørgo, T. (2009). Processes of disengagement from violent groups of the extreme right. In T. Bjørgo & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: disengagement from political violence (pp. 30-48). London / New York: Routledge.

Bovenkerk, F. (2011). On leaving criminal organizations. Crime, Law and Social Change, 55(4), 261-276. doi:10.1007/s10611-011-9281-x

Braddock, K. (2014). The talking cure? Communication and psychological impact in prison de-radicalisation programmes. In A. Silke (Ed.), Prisons, terrorism and extremism: critical issues in management, radicalisation and reform (pp. 60-74). London / New York: Routledge.

Bubolz, B. F., & Simi, P. (2015). Leaving the world of hate: life-course transitions and self-change. American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), 1588-1608. doi:10.1177/0002764215588814

Burke, L., & Collett, S. (2014). Delivering rehabilitation: the politics, governance and control of probation. London: Routledge.

Cherney, A. (2018a). Evaluating interventions to disengage extremist offenders: a study of the proactive integrated support model (PRISM). Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism & Political Aggression, Online first. doi:10.1080/19434472.2018.1495661

Cherney, A. (2018b). The release and community supervision of radicalised offenders: issues and challenges that can influence reintegration. Terrorism and Political Violence, Online first, 1-19. doi:10.1080/09546553.2018.1530661

Ciluffo, F. J., Cardash, S. L., & Khor, L. O. (2014). Detainee release and global public safety: terrorist disengagement and deradicalization programs - the way ahead. Retrieved from https://cchs.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2371/f/downloads/Issue%20Brief%2022%20Detainee%20Release%20and%20Global%20Public%20Safety.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Clubb, G. (2016a). The role of former combatants in preventing youth involvement in terrorism in Northern Ireland: a framework for assessing former Islamic State combatants. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(9), 842-861. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2016.1144917

Clubb, G. (2016b). Social movement de-radicalisation and the decline of terrorism: the morphogenesis of the Irish Republican movement. London / New York: Routledge.

Combes, W. S. (2013, 9 July). Assessing two countering violent extremism programs: Saudi Arabia's PRAC and the United Kingdom's Prevent strategy. Small Wars Journal.

Crelinsten, R. (2014). Perspectives on counterterrorism: from stovepipes to a comprehensive approach. Perspectives on Terrorism, 8(1), 2-15.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2013). Promoting exit from violent extremism: themes and approaches. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(2), 99-115. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2013.747073

De Vito, C. G. (2014). Processes of radicalization and de-radicalization in Western European prisons (1965-1986). In L. Bosi, C. Demetriou, & S. Malthaner (Eds.), Dynamics of political violence: a process-oriented perspective on radicalization and the escalation of political conflict (pp. 71-90). London / New York: Routledge.

Decker, S. H., & Pyrooz, D. C. (2018). Activism and radicalism in prison: measurement and correlates in a large sample of inmates in Texas. Justice Quarterly, Online first, 1-29. doi:10.1080/07418825.2018.1462396

Della Porta, D., & LaFree, G. (2012). Guest editorial: processes of radicalization and de-radicalization. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6(1), 4-10.

Demant, F., & De Graaf, B. (2010). How to counter radical narratives: Dutch deradicalization policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(5), 408-428. doi: 10.1080/10576101003691549

Demant, F., Slootman, M., Buijs, F., & Tillie, J. (2008). Decline and disengagement: an analysis of processes of deradicalisation. Retrieved from Amsterdam: https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/1079141/64714_Demant_Slootman_2008_Decline_and_Disengagement.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Demant, F., Wagenaar, W., & Van Donselaar, J. (2009). Monitor racisme & extremisme: deradicaliseren in de praktijk. Amsterdam: Anne Frank Stichting / Amsterdam University Press.

Duvall, J. A., Novy, L. C., & Knox, C. A. (2012). An analysis of modern state-level terrorist deradicalization campaigns. (Master's thesis), Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey.

El-Said, H. (2012). De-radicalising Islamists: programmes and their impact in Muslim majority states. Retrieved from London: http://icsr.info/2012/02/de-radicalising-islamists-programmes-and-their-impact-in-muslim-majority-states-2/ Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

El-Said, H. (2015). New approaches to countering terrorism: designing and evaluating counter radicalization and de-radicalization programs. Basingstoke / New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Elshimi, M. S. (2017). De-radicalisation in the UK Prevent strategy. London / New York: Routledge.

Entenmann, E., Van der Heide, L., Weggemans, D., & Dorsey, J. (2016). Rehabilitation for foreign fighters? Relevance, challenges and opportunities for the criminal justice sector. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, 6(5), 1-28. doi:10.19165/2015.2.05

EUROPOL. (2018). TE SAT - European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report: 2018. The Hague: Europol.

Feddes, A. R. (2015). Socio-psychological factors involved in measures of disengagement and deradicalization and evaluation challenges in Western Europe. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/sites/default/files/Feddes.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Feddes, A. R., & Gallucci, M. (2015). A literature review on methodology used in evaluating effects of preventive and de-radicalisation interventions. Journal for Deradicalization(5), 1-27.

Ferguson, N. (2011). Disengaging from terrorism. In A. Silke (Ed.), The psychology of counter-terrorism (pp. 111-122). London / New York: Routledge.

Ferguson, N. (2016). Disengaging from terrorism: a Northern Irish experience. Journal for Deradicalization(6), 1-23.

Ferguson, N., Burgess, M., & Hollywood, I. (2015). Leaving violence behind: disengaging from politically motivated violence in Northern Ireland. Political Psychology, 36(2), 199-214. doi:10.1111/pops.12103

Gielen, A.-J. (2017). Countering violent extremism: a realist review for assessing what works, for whom, in what circumstances, and how? Terrorism and Political Violence, Online first, 1-19. doi:10.1080/09546553.2017.1313736

Gielen, A.-J. (2018). Exit programmes for female jihadists: a proposal for conducting realistic evaluation of the Dutch approach. International Sociology, 33(4), 454-472. doi:10.1177/0268580918775586

Gielen, A.-J., & Junne, G. (2008). Evaluatie van antiradicaliseringsprojecten. Hoe meet je of radicalisering wordt tegengegaan? In D. Verlet & C. Devos (Eds.), Over beleidsevaluatie: van theorie naar praktijk en terug (pp. 122-151). Brussels: Studiedienst van de Vlaamse Regering.

Götsch, K. (2017). Austria and the threats from Islamist radicalisation and terrorist involvement: an overview of governmental and non-governmental initiatives and policies. Journal for Deradicalization(12).

Gøtzsche-Astrup, O. (2018). The time for causal designs: review and evaluation of empirical support for mechanisms of political radicalisation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 39, 90-99. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.003

Gunaratna, R., & Bin Alli, M. (Eds.). (2015). Terrorist rehabilitation: a new frontier in counter-terrorism. London: Imperial College Press.

Gunaratna, R., Jerard, J., & Rubin, L. (Eds.). (2011). Terrorist rehabilitation and counter-radicalisation: New approaches to counter-terrorism. London / New York: Routledge.

Gunaratna, R., & Rubin, L. (2011). Introduction. In R. Gunaratna, J. Jerard, & L. Rubin (Eds.), Terrorist rehabilitation and counter-radicalisation: New approaches to counter-terrorism (pp. 1-10). London / New York: Routledge.

Hamidi, A. Z. (2016). Malaysia's policy on counter terrorism and deradicalisation strategy. Journal of Public Security and Safety, 6(2), 1-19.

Hamm, M. S. (2013). The spectacular few: prisoner radicalization and the evolving terrorist threat. New York / London: New York University Press.

Hannah, G., Clutterbuck, L., & Rubin, J. (2008). Radicalization or rehabilitation: understanding the challenge of extremist and radicalized prisoners. Retrieved from Santa Monica: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2008/RAND_TR571.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Harris-Hogan, S., Barrelle, K., & Zammit, A. (2016). What is countering violent extremism? Exploring CVE policy and practice in Australia. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 8(1), 6-24. doi:10.1080/19434472.2015.1104710

Hayter, C. N. (2016). Deradicalization or disengagement?: a framework for encouraging jihad abandonment. (Master's thesis), National Defense University,

Hegghammer, T. (2016). The future of jihadism in Europe: a pessimistic view. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(6), 156-170.

Hettiarachchi, M. (2018). Rehabilitation to deradicalise detainees and inmates: a counter-terrorism strategy. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 13(2), 267-283. doi:10.1080/18335330.2018.1476774

Hill, G. (2016). Rehabilitating terrorists. Journal of Eastern-European Criminal Law, 3, 154-158.

Holmer, G., & Shtuni, A. (2017). Returning foreign fighters and the reintegration imperative. Retrieved from Washington, D.C.: https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/2017-03/sr402-returning-foreign-fighters-and-the-reintegration-imperative.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Horgan, J. (2009). Walking away from terrorism: accounts of disengagement from radical and extremist movements. New York: Routledge.

Horgan, J. (2014). What makes a terrorist stop being a terrorist? Journal for Deradicalization(1), 1-4.

Horgan, J., & Altier, M. B. (2012). The future of terrorist de-radicalization programs. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 13(2), 83-90.

Horgan, J., & Braddock, K. (2010). Rehabilitating the terrorists?: challenges in assessing the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22(2), 267-291. doi:10.1080/09546551003594748

Ilardi, G. J. (2010). Prison radicalisation - the devil is in the detail. Paper presented at the Understanding Terrorism from an Australian Perspective: Radicalisation, De-radicalisation and Counter Radicalisation, Monash University, Melbourne. http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/radicalisation/files/2013/03/conference-2010-prison-radicalisation-gji.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Irwin, N. (2015). The complexity of responding to home-grown terrorism: radicalisation, de-radicalisation and disengagement. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 10(2), 166-175. doi:10.1080/18335330.2015.1089639

Istiqomah, M. (2012). Indonesian de-radicalization program: a reformation on the correctional institution. US-China Law Review, 9(3), 264-273. doi:10.17265/1548-6605/2012.03.009

Jacoby, T. A. (2016). How the war was 'one': countering violent extremism and the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in Canada. Journal for Deradicalization(6), 272-304.

Jarvis, L. (2016). Critical Terrorism Studies after 9/11. In R. Jackson (Ed.), Routledge handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies (pp. 28-38). London / New York: Routledge.

Johnson, S. (2009). Is the deradicalisation of Islamist extremists possible in a secular society such as Britain? POLIS Journal, 2, 1-79.

Jones, C. R. (2014). Are prisons really schools for terrorism? Challenging the rhetoric on prison radicalization. Punishment & Society, 16(1), 74-103. doi:10.1177/1462474513506482

Jones, M. (2013). Rehabilitating islamist extremists: succesful methods in prison-centred 'de-radicalisation' programmes. POLIS Journal, 10, 171-121.

Joyce, C., & Lynch, O. (2017). 'Doing Peace': The role of ex-political prisoners in violence prevention initiatives in Northern Ireland. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(12), 1072-1090. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2016.1253990

Kamaruddin, M. N., Noordin, N. N. M., & Rahman, A. R. A. (2017). Terrorist deradicalisation programme in Malaysia: a case study. Journal of Media and Information Warfare, 10, 25-49.

Karpantschof, R. (2015). Violence that matters! Radicalization and de-radicalization of leftist, urban movements - Denmark 1981-2011. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism & Political Aggression, 7(1), 35-52. doi:10.1080/19434472.2014.977330

Kaya, Z. (2016). Letting go: de-radicalization in Egypt. Journal for Deradicalization(6), 87-104.

Koehler, D. (2015a). De-radicalization and disengagement programs as counter-terrorism and prevention tools. Insights from field experiences regarding German right-wing extremism and jihadism. In M. Lombardi, E. Ragab, V. Chin, Y. Dandurand, V. De Divitiis, & A. Burato (Eds.), Countering radicalisation and violent extremism among youth to prevent terrorism (pp. 120-150). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Koehler, D. (2015b). Family counselling, de-radicalization and counter-terrorism: the Danish and German programs in context. In S. Zeiger & A. Aly (Eds.), Countering violent extremism: developing an evidence-base for policy and practice (pp. 129-136). Perth: Curtin University.

Koehler, D. (2017a). How and why we should take deradicalization seriously. Nature Human Behaviour, 1. 0095. doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0095

Koehler, D. (2017b). Right-wing terrorism in the 21st century: the 'National Socialist Underground' and the history of terror from the far-right in Germany. London / New York: Routledge.

Koehler, D. (2017c). A typology of 'de-radicalisation' programmes. In L. Colaert (Ed.), 'De-radicalisation': scientific insights for policy (pp. 63-81). Brussels: Flemish Peace Institute.

Koehler, D. (2017d). Understanding deradicalization: methods, tools and programs for countering violent extremism. London / New York: Routledge.

Kutner, S. (2016). The call for component analyses of the Saudi Arabian risk reduction initiative: an examination of religious re-education's role in the deradicalization and disengagement process. Journal for Deradicalization(7).

La Palm, M. (2017). Re-purposing the push-pull model to describe signature patterns of terrorist disengagement by group: a validation study. Journal for Deradicalization(12), 85-118.

Mabrey, D. J., & Ward, R. H. (2009). Terrorist de-radicalization: comparative approaches for reintegrating terrorists into the community. In S. Ekici, A. Ekici, D. A. McEntire, R. H. Ward, & S. S. Arlikatti (Eds.), Building terrorism resistant communities: together against terrorism (pp. 253-263). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Maher, S. (2016). Salafi-Jihadism: the history of an idea. London: Hurst.

Marsden, S. V. (2015). Conceptualising ‘success’ with those convicted of terrorism offences: Aims, methods, and barriers to reintegration. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism & Political Aggression, 7(2), 143-165. doi:10.1080/19434472.2014.1001421

Marsden, S. V. (2017). Reintegrating radicals. In O. Lynch & J. Argomaniz (Eds.), Victims and perpetrators of terrorism: exploring identities, roles and narratives (pp. 149-164). London / New York: Routledge.

Mastroe, C. (2016). Evaluating CVE: understanding the recent changes to the United Kingdom's implementation of Prevent. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(2), 50-60.

Merz, F. (2017). Dealing with jihadist returnees: a though challenge. CSS Analyses in Security Policy(210), 1-4.

Miller, E. (2018). Global Terrorism in 2017. Retrieved from College Park, MD: http://www.start.umd.edu/publication/global-terrorism-2017 Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Mitchell, S. (2017). Deradicalization: using triggers for the development of a US program. Journal for Deradicalization(9), 101-125.

Moghaddam, F. M. (2009). De-radicalization and the staircase from terrorism. In D. V. Canter (Ed.), The faces of terrorism: multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 277-292). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Morris, M., Eberhard, F., Rivera, J., & Watsula, M. (2010). Deradicalization: a review of the literature with comparisons to findings in the literatures on deganging and deprogramming. Retrieved from Durham: https://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/Morris_Research_Brief_Final.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Mucha, W. (2017). Polarization, stigmatization, radicalization. Counterterrorism and homeland security in France and Germany. Journal for Deradicalization(10), 230-254.

Mudde, C. (2017). The far right in America. London / New York: Routledge.

Mullins, S. (2010). Rehabilitation of Islamist terrorists: lessons from criminology. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 3(3), 162-193. doi:10.1080/17467586.2010.528438

Nelen, H., Leeuw, F., & Bogaerts, S. (2010). Antiterrorismebeleid en evaluatieonderzoek: framework, toepassingen en voorbeelden. The Hague: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.

Neumann, P. R. (2010). Prisons and terrorism: radicalisation and de-radicalisation in 15 countries. Retrieved from London: https://icsr.info/tag/prisons-and-terrorism-radicalisation-and-de-radicalisation-in-15-countries/ Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Noricks, D. M. E. (2009). Disengagement and deradicalization: processes and programs. In P. K. Davis & K. Cragin (Eds.), Social science for counterterrorism: putting the pieces together (pp. 299-321). Santa Monica: RAND.

Paulussen, C., & Pitcher, K. (2018). Prosecuting (potential) foreign fighters: legislative and practical challenges. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, 8(13), 1-48. doi:10.19165/2018.1.01

Pettinger, T. (2017). De-radicalization and counter-radicalization: valuable tools combating violent extremism, or harmful methods of subjugation? Journal for Deradicalization(12), 1-59.

Pressman, E., Duits, N., Rinne, T., & Flockton, J. (2016). VERA-2R Violent Extremism Risk Assessment Version 2 Revised: a Structured Professional Judgement Approach. Retrieved from Utrecht: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/node/11702_en Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, S. L., Ghez, J., & Boucek, C. (2010). Deradicalizing islamist extremists. Santa Monica: RAND.

Rapoport, D. C. (2004). The four waves of modern terrorism. In A. K. Cronin & J. M. Ludes (Eds.), Attacking terrorism: elements of a grand strategy (pp. 46-73). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Reclassering Nederland. (2017). Informatieblad Terrorisme, Extremisme en Radicalisering (TER).

Reinares, F. (2011). Exit from terrorism: a qualitative empirical study on disengagement and deradicalization among members of ETA. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23(5), 780-803. doi: 10.1080/09546553.2011.613307

Romaniuk, P., & Fink, N. C. (2012). From input to impact: evaluating terrorism prevention programs. Retrieved from New York / Washington, D.C.: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/153962/CGCC_EvaluatingTerrorismPrevention.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Rosland, E. (2017, 28 March). We need to prepare for the inevitable: when terrorists leave prison. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/4715307/terrorists-get-out-of-prison/ Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Schmid, A. P. (2011). The definition of terrorism. In A. P. Schmid (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of terrorism research (pp. 39-98). London / New York: Routledge.

Schmid, A. P. (2013). Radicalisation, de-radicalisation, counter-radicalisation: a conceptual discussion and literature review. Retrieved from The Hague: https://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Schmid-Radicalisation-De-Radicalisation-Counter-Radicalisation-March-2013.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Schuurman, B. (2013). Defeated by popular demand: public support and counterterrorism in three western democracies, 1963-1998. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(2), 152-175. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2013.747072

Schuurman, B., & Bakker, E. (2016). Reintegrating jihadist extremists: evaluating a Dutch initiative, 2013-2014. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 8(1), 66-85. doi:10.1080/19434472.2015.1100648

Schuurman, B., & Taylor, M. (2018). Reconsidering radicalization: fanaticism and the link between ideas and violence. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(1), 3-22.

Schuurman, B., & Van der Heide, L. (2016). Foreign fighter returnees & the reintegration challenge. Retrieved from Brussels: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/

homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/networks/radicalisation_awareness_network/ran-papers/docs/issue_paper_foreign_fighter_returnees_reintegration_challenge_112016_en.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Scott, E. F., III. (2016). Recycled bricks: exploring opportunities to reintegrate returning American foreign fighters using existing models. (Master's thesis), Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1031510.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Silke, A. (2011). Disengagement or deradicalization: a look at prison programs for jailed terrorists. CTC Sentinel, 4(1), 18-21.

Silke, A., & Veldhuis, T. (2017). Countering violent extremism in prisons: a review of key recent research and critical research gaps. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(5), 2-11.

Sim, S. (2012). Strategies for successful risk reduction programmes for violent extremists: lessons from Singapore, Indonesia and Afghanistan. In D.-R. Voica (Ed.), Trends and developments in contemporary terrorism (pp. 55-76). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Soufan, A., Fallon, M., Freedman, D., Borum, R., Horgan, J., Gelles, M., . . . McManus, B. (2010). Risk reduction for countering violent extremism: explorative review by the international resource center for countering violent extremism. Retrieved from http://www.soufangroup.com/risk-reduction-for-countering-violent-extremism/ Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Speckhard, A. (2011). Prison and community-based disengagement and de-radicalization programs for extremist involved in militant jihadi terrorism ideologies and activities. In A. Speckhard (Ed.), Psychosocial, organizational and cultural aspects of terrorism (pp. 1-14). Neuilly-sur-Seine: NATO-Research and Technology Organisation.

Stern, J. E. (2014). X: a case study of a Swedish Neo-Nazi and his reintegration into Swedish society. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 32(3), 440-453. doi:10.1002/bsl.2119

Suarda, I. G. W. (2018). An examination of Indonesian prison officers' experiences on deradicalisation: towards better practice. (PhD thesis), Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane. Retrieved from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/117974/1/I%20Gede%20Widhiana_Suarda_Thesis.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Sukabdi, Z. A. (2015). Terrorism in Indonesia: a review on rehabilitation and deradicalization. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2), 36-56. doi:10.15664/jtr.1154

Suratman, Y. P. (2017). The effectiveness of de-radicalization program in Southeast Asia: does it work? The case of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Journal of Asian Studies, 5(2), 135-156.

Sutrimo, A. S., Domai, T., & Wijaya, A. F. (2016). Implementation of deradicalization policy for terrorism prisoners: an Indonesian experience. International Journal of Management and Administrative Sciences, 3(10), 1-30.

Thijs, F., Rodermond, E., & Weerman, F. (2018). Verdachten van terrorisme in beeld: achtergrondkenmerken, 'triggers' en eerdere politiecontacten. Apeldoorn / Amsterdam: Politie & Wetenschap / NCSR.

Thornton, A., & Bouhana, N. (2017). Preventing radicalization in the UK: expanding the knowledge-base on the Channel programme. Policing, Online first. doi:10.1093/police/pax036

Tobor, J. O., & Shajkovci, A. (2016). Disengagement from violence and terrorism: a comparative analysis of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, and the Balkans. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(4), 237-242.

Van der Heide, L., & Huurman, R. (2016). Suburban bliss or disillusionment - why do terrorists quit? Journal for Deradicalization(8), 1-24.

Veldhuis, T. (2012). Designing rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for violent extremist offenders: a realist approach. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, 3(2), 1-21. doi:10.19165/2012.1.02

Veldhuis, T. (2016). Prisoner radicalization and terrorism detention policy: institutionalized fear or evidence-based policy making? London / New York: Routledge.

Verweij, S., Tollenaar, N., & Wartna, B. S. J. (2016). CoVa: eerst denken dan ...? Vergelijkend recidiveonderzoek naar het effect van cognitieve vaardigheidstrainingen uitgevoerd in de periode 2008-2011. Meppel / The Hague: Boom Juridisch / WODC.

Webber, D., Chernikova, M., Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J., Hettiarachchi, M., Gunaratna, R., . . . Belanger, J. J. (2018). Deradicalizing detained terrorists. Political Psychology, 39(3), 539-556. doi:10.1111/pops.12428

Weeks, D. (2018). Doing derad: an analysis of the U.K. system. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 41(7), 523-540. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2017.1311107

Weggemans, D., & De Graaf, B. (2017). Reintegrating jihadist extremist detainees: helping extremist offenders back into society. London / New York: Routledge.

Weijters, G., Verweij, S., & Tollenaar, N. (2017). Recidive onder justitiabelen in Nederland: een verslag over de periode 2004 tot en met 2016. Retrieved from The Hague: https://www.wodc.nl/binaries/FS2017-5_2768_tcm28-299134.pdf Last accessed: 23 December 2018.

Wilkinson, B. (2014). Do leopards change their spots? Probation, risk assessment and management of terrorism-related offenders on licence in the UK. In A. Silke (Ed.), Prisons, terrorism and extremism: critical issues in management, radicalisation and reform (pp. 259-269). London / New York: Routledge.

Williams, M. J., & Kleinman, S. M. (2014). A utilization-focused guide for conducting terrorism risk reduction program evaluations. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism & Political Aggression, 6(2), 102-146. doi:10.1080/19434472.2013.860183

Williams, M. J., & Lindsey, S. C. (2014). A social psychological critique of the Saudi terrorism risk reduction initiative. Psychology, Crime & Law, 20(2), 135-151. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2012.749474

Wilson, R. J., McWhinnie, A., Picheca, J. E., Prinzo, M., & Cortoni, F. (2007). Cricles of Support and Accountability: engaging community volunteers in the management of high-risk sexual offenders. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 46(1), 1-15. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2311.2007.00450.x

Yilmaz, K. (2014). Disengaging from terrorism - lessons from the Turkish penitents. London / New York: Routledge.

Zhou, Z. (2017). Chinese strategy for de-radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, Online first, 1-23. doi:10.1080/09546553.2017.1330199


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Liesbeth van der Heide, Bart Schuurman

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)