Responding to the Challenges of Violent Extremism/Terrorism Cases for United States Probation and Pretrial Services
Keywords:Radicalization, Intervention, Disengagement, Violent Extremism, Terrorism
This article is intended to share the U.S. District Court of Minnesota Probation and Pretrial Services’ experiences, knowledge, practices, and processes for working with extremist/terrorist defendants and offenders with other criminal justice professionals. Over the past decade, the District of Minnesota has been challenged with meeting the demands of more jihadist-type extremist cases than any district in the United States. The Federal Judiciary’s Probation and Pretrial Services national system does not have specialized risk and needs assessment tools, intervention strategies for disengagement and rehabilitation programming, or specific supervision practices for working with this new generation of extremist/terrorism participants. After conducting extensive research, the District selected international experts to provide training and tools for working with extremists that range from jihadists to white supremacists. The District has implemented a team-based approach for working with extremists to include combining current Probation and Pretrial Services practices with programming developed by Expert Consultant Daniel Koehler, Director of the German Institute on Radicalization and Deradicalization Studies (GIRDS), and a risk assessment tool and manualized intervention strategies developed by Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service of the United Kingdom. By necessity, the District of Minnesota has become both a training hub and experimental lab for developing the first of its kind of practices for working with extremist cases in the United States. The District of Minnesota has developed the Minnesota Probation and Pretrial Services Justice Model of Intervention, Disengagement, and Rehabilitation for working with extremists. This model of specialized tools, training, and knowledge has been incorporated into assessing release or detention of defendants pending trial, identifying pretrial release conditions, determining appropriate sentence recommendations, and developing the necessary special conditions for community supervision to ensure both public safety and disengagement from extremism as components of the rehabilitation process.
Anti-Defamation League. (2018). Murder and extremism in the United States in 2017. Retrieved from https://www.adl.org/media/10827/download (accessed December 1, 2018)
Barrett, D. (2017, September 27). FBI investigating 1,000 white supremacist, domestic terrorism cases. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/fbi-investigating-1000-white-supremacist-domestic-terrorism-cases/2017/09/27/95abff24-a38b-11e7-ade1-76d061d56efa_story.html?utm_term=.a53a5df7a9ae (accessed December 1, 2018)
Berkell, K. (2017). Risk reduction in terrorism cases: sentencing and the post-conviction environment. Journal for Deradicalization, 0(13), 276-341.
Center on National Security at Fordham Law. (n.d.). Research. Retrieved from http://www.centeronnationalsecurity.org/research/ (accessed December 1, 2018)
DeRusha, J. (2011, January 19). Good question: why did Somalis locate here? CBS Minnesota. Retrieved from https://minnesota.cbslocal.com/2011/01/19/good-question-why-did-somalis-locate-here/ (accessed December 1, 2018)
GW Program on Extremism. (2018, September). The Islamic state in America GW extremism tracker. Retrieved from https://extremism.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2191/f/August%202018%20Update.pdf (accessed December 1, 2018)
Hill, S. M. (2017). Community policing, homeland security, and the Somali diaspora in Minnesota. Democracy and Security. doi:10.1080/17419166.2017.1342538
House Homeland Security Committee. (2018a). Terror gone viral: overview of the 243 Isis-linked incidents targeting the west [Press release]. Retrieved from https://homeland.house.gov/press/mccaul-releases-terror-gone-viral-report-2-0/ (accessed December 1, 2018)
House Homeland Security Committee. (2018b). Terror threat snapshot November 2018 [Press release]. Retrieved from https://homeland.house.gov/press/mccaul-releases-november-terror-threat-snapshot-2/ (accessed December 1, 2018)
IAC Publishing, LLC. (2018, November 8). How many people were killed on 9/11? Retrieved from https://www.reference.com/history/many-people-were-killed-9-11-878325f021b96419 (accessed December 1, 2018)
Knudsen, R. A. (2018). Measuring radicalisation: risk assessment conceptualisations and practice in England and Wales. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression. doi:10.1080/19434472.2018.1509105
Koehler, D. (2016a). Understanding deradicalization, methods, tools and programs for countering violent extremism. Oxon, New York: Routledge.
Koehler, D. (2016b). Right-wing terrorism in the 21st century. The National Socialist Underground and the history of terror from the far-right in Germany. Oxon, New York: Routledge.
Koehler, D. (2017). Structural quality standards for work to intervene with and counter violent extremism. Retrieved from https://www.konex-bw.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/20180202-FINAL-KPEBW-HandbuchExtremismus_A4_engl_04I18_web.pdf (accessed December 1, 2018)
McCarthy, N. (2017, October 25). Scores of ISIS foreign fighters have returned home [Infographic]. Forbes.com. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2017/10/25/scores-of-isis-foreign-fighters-have-returned-home-infographic/#1bfb79d05e8e (accessed December 1, 2018)
Meleagrou-Hitchens, A., Hughes, S., & Clifford, B. (2018, February). The travelers: American jihadists in Syria and Iraq. Retrieved from https://extremism.gwu.edu/reports (accessed December 1, 2018)
Minnesota Historical Society. (n.d.). Hmong in Minnesota. Retrieved from http://www.mnhs.org/hmong (accessed December 1, 2018)
Southern Poverty Law Center. (n.d.). Hate map. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/
United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2018, November). Hate crime statistics, 2017. Retrieved from https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2017/topic-pages/incidents-and-offenses.pdf (accessed December 1, 2018)
United States v. Ali, 799 F.3d 1008, 1031 (8th Circuit 2015).
Wilhide, A. (2018, May 30). Somali and Somali American experiences in Minnesota. Retrieved from http://www.mnopedia.org/somali-and-somali-american-experiences-minnesota (accessed December 1, 2018)
Wray, C. (2018, March 2). By the book: work that matters [Speech]. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/by-the-book-work-that-matters (accessed December 1, 2018)
The JD Journal for Deradicalization uses a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) Licence. You are free to share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following conditions:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, andindicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.