Supporting disengagement and reintegration: qualitative outcomes from a custody-based counter radicalisation intervention
Keywords:Interventions, Countering Violent Extremism, Disengagement, De-radicalisation, Reintegration, Prisoners, Parolees, Convicted Terrorists, Program Effectiveness, Evaluation
AbstractThe rehabilitation and reintegration of radicalised offenders has become an increasing area of concern internationally. This has led to investment in interventions aimed at the de-radicalisation and disengagement of terrorist/radicalised inmates. However, little is known about the delivery, content and outcomes from such formal interventions. This paper fills this gap by providing results from an evaluation of a disengagement program in the Australian state of New South Wales called PRISM. The Proactive Integrated Support Model (PRISM) is an intervention delivered by Corrective Services NSW aimed at prison inmates who have a conviction for terrorism or have been identified as at risk of radicalisation. Data reported here is part of a larger second evaluation of PRISM and draws on interviews with PRISM staff (N=10) and PRISM clients (i.e., inmates and parolees; N=12). The paper examines outcomes from the intervention in relation to the benefits PRISM clients derived from participation and explores different qualitative dimensions of client progress. The responses of PRISM clients are compared against the observations of program staff who work with these individuals. Results provide lessons for how formal interventions can facilitate disengagement and reintegration. Broader lessons for the delivery and evaluation of CVE interventions are identified. Limitations in the study design are also acknowledged.
Barrelle, K. (2015). Pro-integration: Disengagement from and life after extremism. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 7(2), 129-142.
Baruch, B., Ling, T., Warnes, R., & Hofman, J. (2018). Evaluation in an emerging field: Developing a measurement framework for the field of counter-violent-extremism. Evaluation, 24(4), 475-495. DOI:10.1177/1356389018803218
Bélanger, J. J. (2017). “The rise and fall of violent extremism: The Science behind community-based interventions”. In Catalina E. Kopetz and Ayelet Fishbach (eds) The Motivation-Cognition Interface (pp. 170-195). Routledge. New York.
Cherney, A. (2018a). Evaluating Interventions to Disengage Extremist Offenders: A Study of the Proactive Integrated Support Model (PRISM). Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, DOI:10.1080/19434472.2018.1495661.
Cherney, A. (2018b). The release and community supervision of radicalised offenders: Issues and challenges that can influence. Terrorism and Political Violence, DOI: 10.1080/09546553.2018.1530661
Cherney, A. & Belton, E. (2018). An Evaluation of the Proactive Integrated Support Model (PRISM), University of Queensland, Corrective Services New South Wales, August 2018.
Cherney, A. & Belton, E. (forthcoming). Evaluating case managed approaches to counter radicalisation and violent extremism: An example of the Proactive Integrated Support Model – PRISM – intervention. (paper under review).
Chernov Hwang, J. (2017). The disengagement of Indonesian jihadists: Understanding the pathways. Terrorism and Political Violence, 29 (2), 277-295.
Chernov-Hwang, J. (2018). Why terrorists quit: The disengagement of Indonesian jihadists. Cornell University Press.
Clubb, G. (2015). De-radicalization, disengagement and the attitudes behavior debate. In C. Kennedy-Pipe, G. Clubb, & S. Mabon (Eds.), Terrorism and political violence (pp. 258–266). London, UK: Sage.
Clubb, G. & Tapley, M. (2018). Conceptualising deradicalisation and former combatant re-integration in Nigeria, Third World Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2018.1458303.
Corrective Services NSW (2015). Offender Classification & Case Management Policy & Procedures Manual 12.3 Category AA and Category 5 Inmates ,V 1.5 March 2015.
Dalgaard-Nielsen A. (2018). Patterns of disengagement from violent extremism: A stocktaking of current knowledge and cmplications for Counterterrorism. In Kristian Steiner and Andreas Önnerfors (eds) Expressions of Radicalization. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, pp 273-293.
El-Said, H. (2015). New approaches to countering terrorism: Designing and evaluating counter radicalization and de-radicalization programs. New York, Springer.
Feddes, A. R., & Gallucci, M. (2015). A literature review on methodology used in evaluating effects of preventive and de-radicalisation interventions. Journal for Deradicalization, (5), 1-27.
Ferguson, N., McDaid, S., & McAuley, J. W. (2018). Social movements, structural violence, and conflict transformation in Northern Ireland: The role of loyalist paramilitaries. Peace and conflict: Journal of peace psychology, 24 (1), 19-26.
Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American journal of sociology, 107(4), 990-1064.
Grierson, J & Barr Caelainn B (2018). Police facing surge in extremists released from jail, analysis finds. The Guardian, 4th June, 2018 (https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jun/03/surge-in-terrorists-eligible-for-parole-poses-threat-to-uk-security) accessed 12 October 2018.
Horgan, J., & Braddock, K. (2010). Rehabilitating the terrorists?: Challenges in assessing the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22, 267-291.
Koehler, D. (2017a). How and why we should take deradicalization seriously. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 0095. DOI:10.1038/s41562-017-0095
Koehler, D. (2017b). Understanding deradicalization: Methods, tools and programs for countering violent extremism. New York/ London: Routledge.
LaFree, G., & Freilich, J. D. (2018). Government policies for counteracting violent extremism. Annual Review of Criminology, Vol. 2:- (Volume publication date January 2019). Review in Advance first posted online on October 12, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011518-024542
Marsden, S. V. (2015). Conceptualising ‘success’ with those convicted of terrorism offences: Aims, methods, and barriers to reintegration. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 7(2), 143-165.
Marsden, S. V. (2017). Reintegrating extremists: Deradicalisation and desistance. Palgrave Pivot: U.K.
Nesser, P. (2018). Islamist terrorism in Europe. Hurst & Company, London.
Neumann, P. R. (2010) Prisons and terrorism radicalisation and de-radicalisation in 15 countries, International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR), London.
Rapp, C. A. (1998). The strengths model: Case management with people suffering from severe and persistent mental illness. Oxford University Press.
Schuurman, B., & Bakker, E. (2016). Reintegrating jihadist extremists: Evaluating a Dutch initiative, 2013–2014. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 8 (1), 66-85.
Silke, A. & Veldhuis, T. (2017). Countering violent extremism in prisons: A review of key recent research and critical research gaps. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11 (5), 2-11.
Silke, A. (2011). Disengagement or deradicalization: A look at prison programs for jailed terrorists. CTC Sentinel, 4 (1), 18-21.
Thomson, D. (2018). The returned: They left to wage jihad, now they’re back, Policy Press, Cambridge U.K. (English edition).
Vanderplasschen, W., Wolf, J., Rapp, R. C., & Broekaert, E. (2007). Effectiveness of different models of case management for substance-abusing populations. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 39(1), 81-95.
Webber, D., Chernikova, M., Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J., Hettiarachchi, M., Gunaratna, R., Lafreniere M.A. & Belanger, J. J. (2018). Deradicalizing detained terrorists. Political Psychology, 39 (3), 539-556.
Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005). Radical Islam rising: Muslim extremism in the West. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
The JD Journal for Deradicalization uses a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) Licence. You are free to share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following conditions:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, andindicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.