Reducing the risks posed by Dutch returnees from Syria by transferring Germany’s experiences in their fight against the radical right to the Netherlands.

Henrique Franssens

Abstract


This article investigates one aspect of what the Dutch government can do to reduce the risks posed by Dutch jihadists who are currently fighting in Syria. The Dutch government has developed a comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism which outlines measures designed to combat the jihadist movement in the Netherlands. The comprehensive action programme includes plans to develop an exit facility to help people leaving the jihadist movement. Furthermore, a support facility needs to be created, based on the German network model. Of this network the Hayat programme will be analysed in-depth together with the EXIT-Deutschland programme. Hayat is a civil society programme that includes working with relatives of radicalised individuals and tries to de-radicalise these individuals. Hayat’s programme is amongst others based on experiences gained from EXIT-Deutschland, a de-radicalisation programme focusing on de-radicalising individual members of the radical right movement. The exit-facility that the Dutch government wants to create and the support facility are only explained vaguely and have not yet been introduced. This research investigates how and to what extent Hayat’s and EXIT-Deutschland’s elements can successfully be transferred to the Netherlands. This research recommends focusing on disengaging instead of de-radicalisation. The programme should be executed by an NGO with expert witness status. Furthermore, an active approach to contacting returnees is considered best in line with the Dutch government’s objectives. Important elements of the German programme can be transferred to the Netherlands. These elements include using a personal approach, providing returnees with alternatives and family counselling, and generally - apart from the already existing repressive measures - focusing on positive measures. This article also outlines the ways in which such a transfer of best practises can be best achieved.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abied, A. (2014), ‘Syrie, politieke impasse, onmenselijke chaos: is er ook een oplossing?’, https://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/441330 (visited on October 22nd 2014).

AD.nl (2014), http://www.ad.nl/ad/nl/1012/Nederland/article/detail/3742239/2014/09/07/Al-minstens-140-Jihadisten-afgereisd-naar-Syrie-of-Irak.dhtml (visited on September 16th 2014).

Atlas, T. (2013), ‘Foreign Fighters Flocking to Syria Stirs Terror Concerns’, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-07-19/u-s-stakes-in-syria-grow-as-radicals-rally-to-the-fight.html (visited on April 11th 2015).

Bakker, E. (2013), ‘Terugkerende Syrië-gangers’, Magazine nationale veiligheid en crisisbeheersing, 11, (4), 4.

Bakker, E, C. Paulussen and E. Entenmann (2013), Dealing with European Foreign Fighters in Syria: Governance Challenges & Legal Implications, The Hague: ICCT.

Barnard, A. and E. Schmitt (2013), ‘As Foreign Fighters Flood Syria, Fears of a New Extremist Haven’, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/09/world/middleeast/as-foreign-fighters-flood-syria-fears-of-a-new-extremist-haven.html?_r=0 (visited on May 2th 2014).

Bjørgo, T. and J. Horgan (2009), Leaving terrorism behind: individual and collective disengagement, London: Routledge.

Burgsma, C. and H. Evrengun (2013), ‘Arie en Sybe vechten tegen Franco – Strijdlustige Nederlanders in de Spaanse Burgeroorlog’, http://www.geschiedenis24.nl/andere-tijden/afleveringen/2013-2014/Spaanse-Burgeroorlog.html (visited on April 26th 2014).

Centre for Security Studies (2014), Foreign Fighters: An Overview of Responses in Eleven Countries, Zurich: ETH Zürich.

Clarke, M. and V. Soria (2010), Terrorism: The New Wave, RUSI Journal, 155, (4), 24-31.

Dolowitz, D.P. and D. Marsh (1996), ‘Who Learns What from Whom: a Review of the Policy Transfer Literature’, Politcial Studies, 44, (2), 343-357.

Dolowitz, D.P. and D. Marsh (2000), ‘Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy-Making’, Governance : An international Journal of Policy and Administration, 13, (1), 5-24.

Dool, P. van den, (2014), ‘Verdachte aanslag Joods Museum Brussel aangeklaagd voor moord’, http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2014/07/30/verdachte-aanslag-joods-museum-brussel-aangeklaagd-voor-moord/, (visited on September 9th 2014).

Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Berlin, Germany (2014), http://duitsland.nlambassade.org/themas (visited on November 15th 2014).

Endres, F. (2014), The Advice Centre on Radicalisation of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, Journal EXIT-Deutschland, 4, (2), 1-20.

Gadd, D. (2006), ‘The role of recognition in the desistance process: A case analysis of a former far-right activist’, Theoretical Criminology, 10, (2), 179-202.

General Intelligence and Security Service of the Netherlands (2010), https://toolbox-extremisme.nctv.nl/documentatie/onderzoeken/disengagement-en-deradicalisering-van-jihadisten-in-nederland (visited on October 20th 2014).

General Intelligence and Security Service of the Netherlands (2014), https://www.aivd.nl/@3111/heropleving/ (visited on October 22nd 2014).

General Intelligence and Security Service of the Netherlands (2015), https://www.aivd.nl/publicaties/@3114/transformation/ (visited on April 11th 2015).

Government of the Netherlands (2014), http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/betrekkingen-met-nederland/duitsland (visited on November 15th 2014).

Hall, S. (1996), Critical dialogues in cultural studies, London: Routledge.

Hegghammer, T. (2013), Should I stay or should I go? Explaining variation in Western jihadists’ choice between domestic and foreign fighting, American Political Science Review, 107, (1), 1-15.

Horgan, J. and Braddock, K. (2010), ‘Rehabilitating the Terrorists? Challenges in Assessing the Effectiveness of De-radicalization programs’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 22, (2), 267-291.

Kaplan, R. D., J. van Oel, K. Armstrong, A. Hirsi Ali, F. Mernissie, A. Bin Oma rand C. Reuter (2006), Jihad-Strijders en strijdster voor Allah, Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Byblos.

Koehler, D. (2013), ‘Family Counselling as Prevention and Intervention Tool Against ‘Foreign Fighters’. The German ‘Hayat’ Program‘, Journal EXIT-Deutschland – Zeitschrift für Deradikalisierung und demokratische Kultur, 3, (1), 182-204.

Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Informaiton Center (2014), http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/en/article/20616 (visited on April 11th 2014).

Ministry of Security and Justice (2014), The Netherlands comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism, The Hague: Ministry of Security and Justice.

National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism (2005), http://www.nctv.nl/Images/22-12-2005-beleidskader-aanpak-radicaliseringshaarden_tcm126-443848.pdf (visited on April 26th 2014).

National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism (2014), https://www.nctv.nl/organisatie/ (visited on November 11th 2014).

NOS (2014), http://nos.nl/artikel/2004614-a-cha-na-jihadreis-terug-in-nederland.html (visited on December 12th 2014).

NOS (2014), http://nos.nl/audio/692498-maatregelen-kabinet-tegen-jihadisme-werken-averechts.html.html (visited on November 20th 2014).

Oxford Dictionaries (2014), http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/best-practice (visited on November 18th).

Pittomvils, K. (1997), Het ABVV, internationaal arbeidsmigraties en ‘gastarbeiders’ in de periode 1960-1974: internationalisme versus nationale verdediging, Brussel: Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Rose, R. (1988), Comparative policy analysis: the program approach, Boulder: Westview.

Rose, R. (1991), ‘What is lesson-drawing?’, Journal of Public Policy, 11, (1), 3-30.

Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (2013), Zakboek aanpak ‘uitreizers’, Den Haag: Ministrie van Defensie.

Sageman, M. (2010), ‘Confronting Al-Qaeda: Understanding the Threat in Afghanistan’, Perspectives on Terrorism ,3, (4), 4-15.

Schellenberg, B. (2009), ‘Strategies for Combating Right-Wing Extremism in Europe’, in: B. Stifung, Strategies for Combating Right-Wing Extremism in Europe, Bielefeld: Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH.

Strategie Nationale veiligheid (2009), file://vuw/Personal$/Homes/09/s0962309/Downloads/kst-30821-3-b1%20(5).pdf (visited on May 5th 2014).

Silke, A. (2011), ‘Disengagement or deradicalization: A look at prison programs for jailed terrorists’, CTC Sentinel, 4, (1),18-21.

SMN (2014), http://www.smn.nl/islam-en-samenleving/smn-start-hulplijn-voor-marokkaanse-ouders-met-radicaliserende-kinderen (visited on November 14th 2014).

Speckhard, A. (2010), Prison and Community Based Disengagement and De-Radicalization Programs for Extremists Involved in Militant Jihadi Terrorism Ideologies and Activities, Pre-publication Version: Conflict and Terrorism.

Stone, D. (2004), ‘Transfer agents and global networks in the ‘transnationalization’ of policy’, Journal of European Public Policy, 11, (3), 545-566.

Trouw (2014), http://www.trouw.nl/tr/nl/4496/Buitenland/article/detail/3674515/2014/06/18/Racistisch-geweld-neemt-fors-toe-in-Duitsland.dhtml (visited on November 14th 2014).

Valk, I. van der, W. Wagenaar and F. Demant (2010), Monitor Racisme & Extremisme: in en

uit extreemrechts, Amsterdam: Anne Frank Stichting/ Amsterdam University Press.

Van den Dool, P. (2014), ‘Verdachte aanslag Joods Museum Brussel aangeklaagd voor moord’, http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2014/07/30/verdachte-aanslag-joods-museum-brussel-aangeklaagd-voor-moord/, (visited on September 9th 2014).

Volkskrant.nl (2014), http://www.volkskrant.nl/vk/nl/2686/Binnenland/article/detail/3644541/2014/04/29/Primeur-jihadist-gepakt-na-reis-naar-Syrie.dhtml (visited on September 29th 2014).

Interviews with

Donselaar, Dr. J.G. van., Associate Professor – Scientific Director for the Institute of Public Administration, Leiden University (April 7th 2014).

Koehler, D., former Director of Research Operations at the Institute for the Study of Radical Movements (April 24th 2014).

Pannekoek, M., Researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and analyst of the strategic information centre of the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (April 29th 2014).

Senior policy maker of the Ministry of Security and Justice (June 3rd 2014).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Henrique Franssens

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)