Becoming, belonging and leaving – Exit processes among young neo-Nazis in Sweden

Christer Mattson, Thomas Johansson

Abstract


There is a growing field of studies on exit processes from extremist and militant organizations. At the same time, however, what is missing is a more developed oral history of exit processes in different European countries. Interviewing individuals who left the neo-Nazi movement five or ten years ago, we have studied and analyzed how the interviewees’ narratives of exit processes are re-constructed and told today. Their reconstruction of narratives and stories on the exit process was influenced by several different factors, such as the time axis, education, intimate relations, employment situation, gender, and class. The results pointed towards a number of push and pull factors. The exit processes were seldom straightforward and linear, but instead dependent upon many social-psychological factors and processes.


Keywords


Neo-Nazis; Exit Processes; Radicalization; Disengagement; De-Radicalization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aho, J.A. (1994) This thing of darkness. A sociology of the enemy. Seattle: Washington University Press.

Altier, M.B., Thoroughgood, C.N., Horgan, J.G. (2014) Turning away from terrorism: lessons from psychology, sociology, and criminology. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 51(5):647-661.

Barrelle, K. (2015) Pro-integration: disengagement from and life after extremism. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, Vol. 7(2): 129-142.

Berbrier, M. (1999) Impression management for thinking racist: A case study of intellectualization as stigma transformation in contemporary white supremacist discourse. The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 40(3):411-433.

Bjørgå, T. (2009) Processes of disengagement from violent groups of the extreme right. In Bjørgå, T & Horgan, J. (eds.) Leaving terrorism behind. Individual and collective disengagement. London: Routledge.

Bubolz, B.F & Simi, P. (2015) Leaving the world of hate; Life-course transitions and self-change. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 59(12):1588-1608.

Burman, E. (2008) Deconstructing developmental psychology. London: Routledge.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2013). Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism: Themes and Approaches. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 36(2), 99-115.

Ebaugh, H.R.F. (1988) Becoming an Ex. The process of role exit. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fekete, L. (2015) Rewiring fascists: Behind the cult of exit. Race & Class, Vol. 56(3):91-101.

Ferber, A.L. (1998) Constructing whiteness: The intersections of race and gender in US white supremacist discourse. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 21(1):48-63.

Hamm, M. S. (2004). Apocalyptic Violence: The Seduction of Terrorist Subcultures. Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 8(3), 323-339.

Harris, K., Gringart, E., & Drake, D. (2017). Leaving ideological groups behind: A model of disengagement. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1-19.

Horgan, J. (2008). Deradicalization or Disengagement? A Process in Need of Clarity and a Counterterrorism Initiative in Need of Evaluation. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2(4), 3-8.

Johansson, T. (2017) Youth Studies in Transition: Theoretical Explorations. International Review of Sociology, Vol. 27 (3):510-524.

Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2009) Interviews. London: Routledge.

Kimmel, M. (2007) Racism as adolescent male rite of passage. Ex-Nazis in Scandinavia. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 36(2):202-218.

Kimmel, M. (2018) Healing from Hate. How Young Men Get Into – and Out of – Violent Extremism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Koehler, D. (2016). Understanding Deradicalization. Methods, Tools and Programs for Countering Violent Extremism. Oxon/New York: Routledge.

Lööw, H. (1990) Hakkorset och wasakärven. Göteborg: Avhandlingar från historiska institutionen.

Lööw, H. (1999) Nazismen i Sverige 1980-1999. Stockholm: Ordfront

Lööw, H. (2004) Nazismen i Sverige 1924-1979. Stockholm: Ordfront

Lööw, H. (2015) Nazismen i Sverige 2000-2014. Stockholm: Ordfront

Pink, S. (2009) Doing Sensor Ethnography. London: Sage.

Pisoiu, D. (2015). Subcultural Theory Applied to Jihadi and Right-Wing Radicalization in Germany. Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 27(1), 9-28

Silva, d., R., Fernández-Navarro, P., Gonçalves, M. M., Rosa, C., &

Silva, J. (2018). Disengagement from Political Violence and Deradicalization: A Narrative-Dialogical Perspective. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 1-24.

Simi, P., Blee, K., DeMichele, M., Windisch, S. (2017) Addicted to hate: Identity residual among former white supremacists. American Sociological Review, Vol 82(6):1167-1187.

Stern, J.E. (2014) X: A Case study of a Swedish Neo-Nazi and his reintegration into Swedish society. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. Vol. 32:440-453.

Windisch, S., Simi, P., Ligon, G.S & McNeel, H. (2017) Disengagement from ideological-Based and Violent Organisations: A systematic review of the literature. Journal for Deradicalization. Winter 2016/17, Nr.9


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Christer Mattson, Thomas Johansson

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)