Comparing Theories of Radicalisation with Countering Violent Extremism Policy

Keiran Hardy

Abstract


This article assesses whether the scholarly literature on radicalisation is adequately integrated into national policy strategies for countering violent extremism (CVE). It outlines concepts and models of radicalisation, and offers a framework for understanding its various complex causes. The article then compares this scholarly research against case studies of CVE policy from the United Kingdom, Australia, Denmark, Sweden and The Netherlands. These countries’ policies adequately capture the core nature of radicalisation, but otherwise exhibit significant variation in how they explain its causes. This can be explained partly by a lack of clarity over how and why radicalisation happens. However, it also suggests that CVE policy is often shaped less by evidence-based research, and more by cultural, political and historical factors. This confirms a need for evidence-based approaches to CVE, and for deeper comparative studies of how radicalisation is understood across national contexts.


Keywords


Radicalisation, Extremism, Ideology, Countering Violent Extremism, Counter-Terrorism Policy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abadie, A. (2006). Poverty, political freedom and the roots of terrorism. American Economic Review, 96(2), 159-177.

Abass, T. (2007). Muslim minorities in Britain: Integration, multiculturalism and radicalism in the post-7/7 period. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 28(3), 287-300.

Australian Government. (2015). Preventing violent extremism and radicalisation in Australia. Canberra: Attorney-General’s Department.

Australia-New Zealand Counter-Terrorism Committee. (2017). Australia’s strategy for protecting crowded places from terrorism. Canberra: Australian Government.

Bartlett, J., & Miller, C. (2012). The edge of violence: Towards telling the difference between violent and non-violent radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(1), 1-21.

Bertossi, C. (2011). National models of integration in Europe: A comparative and critical analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(12), 1561-1580.

Bertram, L. (2016). Terrorism, the internet and the social media advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism. Journal for Deradicalization, 7, 225-252.

Beutel, A., & Weinberger, P. (2016, July). Public-private partnerships to counter violent extremism: Field principles for action (Report to the U.S. Department of State). Maryland: National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism.

Bjørgo, T. (1993). Militant neo-Nazism in Sweden. Terrorism and Political Violence, 5(3), 28-57.

Björklund, J., & Ask, B. (2011). Sweden’s national counter-terrorism strategy (Government Communication 2011/12:73). Stockholm: Ministry of Justice.

Blackbourn, J., Davis, F., & Taylor, N. (2013). Academic consensus and legislative definitions of terrorism: Applying Schmid and Jongman. Statute Law Review, 34(3), 239-261.

Borum, R. (2015). Assessing risk for terrorism involvement. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(2), 63-87.

Borum, R. (2011). Radicalization into violent extremism I: A review of social science theories. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(4), 7-36.

Borum, R., & Fein, R. (2017). The psychology of foreign fighters. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(3), 248-266.

Briggs, R. (2010). Community engagement for counterterrorism: Lessons from the United Kingdom. International Affairs, 86(4), 971-981.

Campelo, N., Oppetit, A., Neau, F., Cohen, D., & Bronsard, G. (2018). Who are the European youths willing to engage in radicalisation? A multidisciplinary review of their psychological and social profiles. European Psychiatry, 52, 1-14.

Chassman, A. (2016). Islamic State, identity, and the global jihadist movement: How is Islamic State successful at recruiting “ordinary” people? Journal for Deradicalization, 9, 205-259.

Christmann, K. (2012). Preventing religious radicalisation and violent extremism: A systematic review of the research evidence. London: Youth Justice Board.

Conway, M. (2017). Determining the role of the internet in violent extremism and terrorism: Six suggestions for progressing research. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(1), 77-98.

Cottee, S. (2017). “What ISIS really wants” revisited: Religion matters in jihadist violence, but how? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(6), 439-454.

Council of Australian Governments. (2015). Australia’s counter-terrorism strategy: Strengthening our resilience. Canberra: Council of Australian Governments.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010). Violent radicalization in Europe: What we know and what we do not know. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(9), 797-814.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2008a). Studying violent radicalization in Europe I: The potential contribution of social movement theory (Working Paper no 2008/2). Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2008b). Studying violent radicalization in Europe II: The potential contribution of socio-psychological and psychological approaches. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.

Dawson, L., & Amarasingam, A. (2017). Talking to foreign fighters: Insights into the motivations for hijrah to Syria and Iraq. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(3), 191-210.

Della Porta, D. (2018). Radicalization: A relational perspective. Annual Review of Political Science, 21, 461-74.

Desmarais, S., Simons-Rudolph, J., Shahan Brugh, C., Schilling, E., & Hoggan, C. (2017). The state of scientific knowledge regarding factors associated with terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 4(4), 180-209.

Dudenhoefer, A. (2018). Resisting radicalisation: A critical analysis of the UK Prevent duty. Journal for Deradicalization, 14, 153-191.

English, R. (2016). Does terrorism work? A history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Feddes, A., & Gallucci, M. (2015). A literature review on methodology used in evaluating effects of preventive and de-radicalisation interventions. Journal for Deradicalization, 5, 1-27.

Gill, P. (2007). A multi-dimensional approach to suicide bombing. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 1(2), 142-159.

Githens-Mazer, J., & Lambert, R. (2010). Why conventional wisdom on radicalization fails: the persistence of a failed discourse. International Affairs, 86(4), 889-901.

Government of Denmark. (2009). A common and safe future: An action plan to prevent extremist views and radicalisation among young people. Copenhagen: Government of Denmark.

Government of Denmark. (2016). Preventing and countering extremism and radicalisation: National action plan. Copenhagen: Government of Denmark.

Government of Denmark. (2014). Prevention of radicalisation and extremism: Action plan. Copenhagen: Government of Denmark.

Greenberg, K. (2016). Counter-radicalization via the internet. Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 668, 167-179.

Guhl, J. (2018). Why beliefs always matter, but rarely help us predict jihadist violence. The role of cognitive extremism as a precursor for violent extremism. Journal for Deradicalization, 14, 192-217.

Hafez, M., & Mullins, C. (2015). The radicalization puzzle: A theoretical synthesis of empirical approaches to homegrown extremism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(11), 958-975.

Hardy, K., & Williams, G. (2016). Australian legal responses to foreign fighters. Criminal Law Journal, 40(4), 196-212.

Hardy, K., & Williams, G. (2011). What is terrorism? Assessing domestic legal definitions. UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs, 16, 77-162.

Harris-Hogan, S., Barrelle, K., & Zammit, A. (2016). What is countering violent extremism? Exploring CVE policy and practice in Australia. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 8(1), 6-24.

Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Home Office. (2018). CONTEST: The United Kingdom’s strategy for countering terrorism (Cm 9608). London: Home Office.

Home Office. (2015). Counter-extremism strategy (Cm 9148). London: Home Office.

Home Office. (2011). Prevent strategy (Cm 8092). London: Home Office.

Home Office. (2009). Pursue prevent protect prepare: The United Kingdom’s strategy for countering international terrorism (Cm 7547). London: Home Office.

Horgan, J. (2008). From profiles to pathways and roots to routes: Perspectives from psychology on radicalization into terrorism. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 618, 80-94.

Horgan, J. (2014). The psychology of terrorism (2nd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.

Jensen, M., Atwell Seate, A., & James, P. (2018). Radicalization to violence: A pathway approach to studying extremism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-24, doi: 10.1080/09546553.2018.1442330

Klausen, J. (2015). Tweeting the jihad: Social media networks of Western foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(1), 1-22.

Koehler, D. (2017). Understanding deradicalization: Methods, tools and programs for countering violent extremism. Abingdon: Routledge.

Koehler, D. (2014). The radical online: Individual radicalization processes and the role of the internet. Journal for Deradicalization, 15, 116-134.

Kruglanski, A., Gelfand, M., Bélanger, J., Sheveland, A., Hetiarachchi, M., & Gunaratna, R. (2014). The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization: How significant quest impacts violent extremism. Advances in Political Psychology, 35(1), 69-93.

Kyriacou, C., Reed, B., Said, F., & Davies, I. (2017) British Muslim university students’ perceptions of Prevent and its impact on their sense of identity. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 12(2), 97-110.

LaFree, G., Jensen, M., James, P., & Safer-Lichtenstein, A. (2018). Correlates of violent political extremism in the United States. Criminology, 56(2), 233-268.

Lakhani, S. (2012). Preventing violent extremism: perceptions of policy from grassroots and communities. Howard Journal, 51(2), 190-206.

Lindekilde, L., Bertelsen, P., & Stohl, M. (2016). Who goes, why, and with what effects: The problem of foreign fighters from Europe. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27(5), 858-877.

Löfven, S., & Kuhnke, A. (2014). Actions to make society more resilient to violent extremism (Government Communication 2014/15:144). Stockholm: Ministry of Culture.

Löfven, S., & Ygeman, A. (2014). Prevent, pre-empt and protect – the Swedish counter-terrorism strategy (Government Communication 2014/15:146). Stockholm: Ministry of Justice.

Lowe, D. (2017). Prevent strategies: The problems associated in defining extremism: The case of the United Kingdom. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(11), 917-933.

Macdonald, S., & Carlile, A. (2014). The criminalisation of terrorists’ online preparatory acts. In S. Macdonald, L. Jarvis, & T. Chen (Eds.), Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment & Response. New York: Springer.

Maskaliūnaitė, A. (2015). Exploring the theories of radicalisation. International Studies, 17(1), 9-26.

Mastroe, C. (2016). Evaluating CVE: Understanding the recent changes to the United Kingdom’s implementation of Prevent. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(2), 50-60.

McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways toward terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(3), 415-433.

McDowell-Smith, A., Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. (2017). Beating ISIS in the digital space: Focus testing ISIS defector counter-narrative videos with American college students. Journal for Deradicalization, 10, 50-76.

Ministry of Security and Justice. (2014). The Netherlands comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism: Overview of measures and actions. The Hague: Ministry of Security and Justice.

Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. (2007). Polarisation and radicalisation action plan: 2007-2011. The Hague: Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.

Moghaddam, F. (2005). The staircase to terrorism: A psychological exploration. American Psychologist, 60(2), 161-169.

National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism. (2016). National Counterterrorism strategy for 2016-2020. The Hague: NCTV.

Neumann, P. (2013). The trouble with radicalization. International Affairs, 89(4), 873-893.

Newsinger, J. (2015). British counterinsurgency (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Nivette, A., Eisner, M., & Ribeaud, D. (2017). Developmental predictors of violent extremist attitudes: A test of general theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 54(6), 755-790.

Pederson, W., Vestel, V., & Bakken, A. (2018) At risk for radicalization and jihadism? A population-based study of Norwegian adolescents. Cooperation and Conflict, 53(1), 61-83.

Piazza, J. (2011). Poverty, minority economic discrimination, and domestic terrorism. Journal of Peace Research, 48(3), 349–350.

Porter, L., & Kebbell, M. (2011). Radicalization in Australia: Examining Australia’s convicted terrorists. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 18(2), 212-231.

Rahimi, S., & Graumans, R. (2015). Reconsidering the relationship between integration and radicalization. Journal for Deradicalization, 5, 28-62.

Roach, K. (2006). The post-9/11 migration of Britain’s Terrorism Act 2000. In S. Choudhury (ed.), The Migration of Constitutional Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding terror networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sageman, M. (2007). Leaderless jihad: Terror networks in the twenty-first century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Schuurman, B., & Taylor, M. (2018). Reconsidering radicalization: Fanaticism and the link between ideas and violence. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(1), 3-22.

Sengupta, K. (2015, December 17). How Britain and France laid the groundwork for Isis’s reign of terror in the Middle East. The Independent. Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/how-britain-and-france-laid-the-groundwork-for-isis-s-reign-of-terror-in-the-middle-east-a6777576.html

Senzai, F. (2015). Making sense of radicalization. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 32(2), 139-152.

Sieckelinck, S., & Gielen, A. (2018, April). Protective and promotive factors building resilience against violent radicalisation (RAN Issue Paper). Amsterdam: Radicalisation Awareness Network.

Silber, M., & Bhatt, A. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The homegrown threat. New York: New York City Police Department.

Silke, A. (1998). Cheshire-cat logic: The recurring theme of terrorist abnormality in psychological research. Psychology, Crime and Law, 4(1), 51-69.

Silverman, T. (2017). U.K. foreign fighters to Syria and Iraq: The need for a real community engagement approach. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(12), 1091-1107.

Smith, C., & Nolan, M. (2016). Post-sentence continued detention of high-risk terrorist offenders in Australia. Criminal Law Journal, 40, 163-179.

Stern, J. (2016). Radicalization to extremism and mobilization to violence: What have we learned and what can we do about it? Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 668, 102-117.

Stevens, T., & Neumann, P. (2009). Countering online radicalisation: A strategy for action. London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation.

Taarnby, M. (2005). Recruitment of Islamist terrorists in Europe: Trends and perspectives. Aarhus: Centre for Cultural Research.

Tulich, T. (2012). Prevention and pre-emption in Australia’s domestic anti-terrorism legislation. International Journal for Crime and Justice, 1(1), 52-64.

UK Government. (2011, February 5). PM’s speech at Munich security conference. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pms-speech-at-munich-security-conference

Victoroff, J., Adelman, J., & Matthews, M. (2012). Psychological factors associated with support for suicide bombing in the Muslim diaspora. Political Psychology, 33(6), 791-809.

Williams, G. (2007). A charter of rights for Australia. Sydney: UNSW Press.

Wilner, A., & Dubouloz, C. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33-51.

Young, H., Rooze, M., Russell, J., Ebner, J., & Schulten, N. (2016, July). Evidence-based policy advice: final report. The Netherlands: TERRA.

Zeiger, S., & Aly, A. (2015). Countering violent extremism: Developing an evidence-base for policy and practice. Perth, Western Australia: Hedayah and Curtin University.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Keiran Hardy

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)