Radicalisation: The Last Taboo in Safeguarding and Child Protection? Assessing Practitioner Preparedness in Preventing the Radicalisation of Looked-After Children

Matt Dryden

Abstract


Radicalisation is fast becoming one of the most acute and pressing safeguarding and child protection issues of the whole century (NSPCC, 2016). However, the issue of looked-after children as potential recruits for extremist groups has been largely overlooked, despite the universal acknowledgement that looked-after children represent the most vulnerable of all demographics within society. This research collected rare and vital primary data by interviewing practitioners within looked-after children’s, residential, and respite services. The study established that practitioners lacked basic awareness of radicalisation and extremism, the Prevent strategy, and the Channel programme. It was discovered that practitioners were unsure of what constitutes the potential indicators of radicalisation, and how and to whom such concerns should be reported. It became apparent that radicalisation as a safeguarding and child protection issue has not been afforded a level of focus adequate and proportionate to the risk posed, and that other issues, namely child sexual exploitation, remain the primary concern in safeguarding contexts.


Keywords


Radicalisation, Radicalization, Looked-After Children, Safeguarding, Child Protection, Prevent Strategy, Extremism, Terrorism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, D. (2016). The Terrorism Acts in 2015. Available at: https://terrorismlegislationreviewer.independent.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/TERRORISM-ACTS-REPORT-1-Dec-2016-1.pdf. Accessed: 24 June 2017.

Appleton, J and Stanley, N. (2010). Looked after children and the care system. Child abuse review. 19 (6), pp. 383-386.

Borum, R. (2011). Rethinking Radicalisation. Journal of Strategic Security. 4 (1), p.1.

Borum, R. (2011). Radicalisation Into Violent Extremism 1: A Review of Social Science Theories. Journal of Strategic Security. 4 (2), p.30

Brighton and Hove local safeguarding children board. (2017). Serious case review: Siblings W and X. Available at: http://www.brightonandhovelscb.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Siblings-W-and-X-SCR-July-2017.pdf. Accessed: 27 July 2017.

Calderdale Safeguarding Children Board. (2017). Available at: http://www.calderdale-scb.org.uk/professionals/prevent-radicalisation-and-extremism/. Accessed 02 May 2017.

Choudhury, T, and Fenwick, H. (2011). The Impact of Counter-Terrorism Measures on Muslim Communities. International Review of Law, Computers and Technology. 25 (3), pp. 151-181.

Cottee, S, and Hayward, K. (2015). Terrorist (E)motives: The Existential Attractions of Terrorism. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 34 (12), pp. 963-986.

Crerar, P. (2015) 1,000 Runaways from Care at risk of Crime, Sexual Exploitation and Radicalisation. Evening standard. 6 (16), p.12.

Davies, L. (2008). Educating Against Extremism. Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books.

Department for Education. (2015). The Prevent Duty: Departmental advice for schools and childcare providers. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/439598/prevent-duty-departmental-advice-v6.pdf. Accessed: 29 April 2017.

Department for Education. (2015). The Prevent Duty: Departmental advice for schools and childcare providers. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/439598/prevent-duty-departmental-advice-v6.pdf. Accessed: 05 May 2017.

Educate Against Hate (2017). How is Extremism relevant to me as a parent?. Available at: http://educateagainsthate.com/parents/why-is-extremism-relevant-to-me/. Accessed: 11 July 2017.

Gartenstein-Ross, D, and Grossman, L. (2009). Homegrown Terrorists in the U.S and U.K; an Empirical Examination of the Radicalisation Process. Washington, FDD’s Centre for Terrorism Research.

Gov.uk. (2003). Every Child Matters. Available at: https://www.education.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/EveryChildMatters.pdf. Accessed: 02 July 2017.

Gov.uk. (2016). Children Looked After in England Including Adoption: 2015-2016. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/children-looked-after-in-england-including-adoption-2015-to-2016. Accessed: 30 May 2017.

Gov.uk..(2016). Prevent e-learning. Available at: https://www.elearning.prevent.homeoffice.gov.uk/m/screen1. Accessed: 03 July 2017.

Gov.uk.(2012). Channel; Vulnerability Assessment Framework. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/118187/vul-assessment.pdf. Accessed: 16 July 2017.

Greer, S. (2010). Anti-Terrorist laws and the United Kingdom’s ‘Suspect Muslim Community’: A reply to Pantazis and Pemberton. 50 (6), pp. 1171-1190.

Hafez, M, Mullins, C. (2015). The Radicalisation Puzzle: A Theoretical Synthesis of Empirical Approaches to Homegrown Extremism. 38 (11), pp. 2-9.

Heath-Kelly, C. (2016). Algorithmic autoimmunity in the NHS: Radicalisation and the clinic. 48 (1), pp. 29-45.

HM Government. (2015). Channel Duty Guidance. Protecting vulnerable people from being drawn into terrorism; statutory guidance for Channel panel members and partners of local panels. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/425189/Channel_Duty_Guidance_April_2015.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2017.

Home Office. (2017). Individuals referred to and supported through the Prevent programme, April 2015-March2016. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/658004/individuals-referred-supported-prevent-programme-apr2015-mar2016.pdf. Accessed 23 November 2017.

Jamieson, A and Flint, J. (2015). Radicalisation and Terrorism: a teacher’s handbook for addressing extremism. Dunstable, Brilliant Publications.

Kendrick, A, Steckley, L and Lerpiniere, J. (2008). Ethical Issues, Research and Vulnerability: Gaining the views of children and young people in residential care. Children's Geographies. 6 (1), pp. 79-93.

Kundnani, A. (2012). Radicalisation: The journey of a Concept. Institute of Race and Relations. 54 (2), pp. 3-25.

Kundnani, A. (2015). The Muslims are coming; Islamophobia, Extremism, and the Domestic War on Terror. London, Verso.

Leve, L, Harold, G, Chamberlain, P, Landsverk, J, Fisher, P and Vostanis, P. (2012). Practitioner Review: Children in foster care- vulnerabilities and evidence based interventions that promote resilience processes. The journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 53 (12), pp. 1197-1211.

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review. 50 (4), pp. 370-396.

Mattsson, C, Hammaren, N, and Odenbring, Y. (2016). Youth at Risk: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the European Commission’s Radicalisation Awareness Network collection of approaches and practices used in education. 8 (3), pp. 251-265.

McKendrick, D and Finch, J. (2017). ‘Under Heavy Manners?’: Social Work, Radicalisation, Troubled Families and Non-Linear War. The British Journal of Social Work. 47 (2), pp. 308-324.

McCauley, C, Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of Political Radicalisation: Pathways Toward Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence. 20 (3), pp. 415-430.

Mogra, I. (2016). The Trojan Horse Affair and Radicalisation: An analysis of Ofsted reports. 68 (4), pp. 444-465.

Mulcahy, E, Merrington, S, Bell, P. (2013). The Radicalisation of Prison Inmates: A review of the literature on recruitment, religion, and prisoner vulnerability. 9 (1), pp. 4-14.

National Union of Teachers. (2016). Prevent Strategy. Available at: https://www.teachers.org.uk/news-events/conference-2016/prevent-strategy. Accessed: 29 April 2017.

NSPCC. (2016). Why Radicalisation is a Child Protection issue. Available at: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/what-we-do/news-opinion/why-radicalisation-child-protection-issue/. Accessed: 27 April 2017.

NUS Connect (2015). Why I won’t be working with Prevent: And how you can avoid it too. Available at: http://www.nusconnect.org.uk/articles/why-i-won-t-be-working-with-prevent-and-how-you-can-avoid-it-too. Accessed: 29 April 2017.

O’Donnell, A. (2015). Securitisation, Counterterrorism, and the Silencing of Dissent: The educational Impacts of Prevent. British Journal of Educational Studies. 64 (1), pp. 53-76.

Pantazis, C, and Pemberton, S. (2009). From the old to the new suspect community: Examining the impact of recent UK counter-terrorist legislation. British Journal of Criminology. 49 (5), pp. 646-666.

Pels, T, and Ruyter, B. (2012). The influence of education and socialisation on radicalisation. Child and youth care forum. 41 (3), pp. 311-325.

Prison Reform Trust (2016). In care, out of trouble. Available at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/Portals/0/Documents/care%20review%20full%20report.pdf. Accessed: 01 June 2017.

Pinto, C and Woolgar, M. (2015). Looked after children: A perspective into a more resilient future. Child and adolescent mental health. 20 (4), p. 181.

Quartermaine, A. (2014). Discussing Terrorism: A Student-Inspired guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education classrooms in Britain. British Journal of Religious Education. 38 (1), pp. 13-29.

Reader, I. (2000). Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan: The Case of Aum Shinrikyo. Richmond, Curzon Press.

Sageman, M. (2008). Leaderless Jihad: Terror networks in the twenty-first century. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sedgwick, M. (2010). The Concept of Radicalisation as a Source of Confusion. Terrorism and Political Violence. 22 (4), pp. 479- 494.

Skillicorn, D, Leuprecht, C, Stys, Y, and Gobel, R. (2015). Structural Differences of Violent Extremists in Correctional Settings. Global Crime. 16 (3), pp. 238- 258.

Stanley, T and Guru, S. (2015). Childhood Radicalisation Risk: An Emerging Practice Issue. Social Work in Action. 27 (5), pp. 353-366.

Thomas, P. (2016). Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain’s Prevent Programme. International Journal of Lifelong Learning. 35 (2), pp. 171-187.

The Guardian. (2016). Nursery ‘raised fears of radicalisation over boy’s cucumber drawing’. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/mar/11/nursery-radicalisation-fears-boys-cucumber-drawing-cooker-bomb. Accessed: 16 July 2017.

Van San, M, Sieckelinck, S, and De Winter, M. (2013). Ideals adrift: An educational approach to radicalisation. 8 (3), pp. 276-289.

Wade, J, Mitchell, F, and Baylis, G. (2005). Unaccompanied asylum seeking children: The response of social work services. Pp. 80-81, London, British Association for Adoption and Fostering.

West Yorkshire Safeguarding Children Board. (2016). Safeguarding Children and Young People from Radicalisation and Violent Extremism. Available at: http://westyorkscb.proceduresonline.com/chapters/p_violent_extreme.html. Accessed: 5 May 2017.

Wilner, A and Dubouloz, C. (2010). Homegrown Terrorism and Transformative Learning: An Interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalisation. 22 (1), pp. 33-51.

Winlow, S, Hall, S, and Treadwell, J. The Rise of The Right: English Nationalism and the Transformation of Working Class Politics. Bristol, Policy Press.

Wright, M, and Hankins, F. Preventing Radicalisation and Terrorism: Is there a GP response? British Journal of General Practice. 66 (647), pp. 288-289.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Matt Dryden

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)