Dutch Suspects of Terrorist Activity: A Study of Their Biographical Backgrounds Based on Primary Sources.

Maarten van Leyenhorst, Ada Andreas

Abstract


With the impending defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq, supporters of terrorist groups, among them home-grown supporters and returning foreign fighters, have become a huge security threat to their country of return. Some have committed attacks in western countries, even while under the surveillance of authorities. Counter-terrorism is confronted with enormous challenges. One of the most prominent issues is the absence of evidence based knowledge on early warning signs. Experts on radicalization and terrorism have emphasized that neither typologies of terrorists nor accurate descriptions of generalizable risks can be made. This leads to opportunities for those who are willing to prepare and commit acts of terrorism to do so, without the agencies in charge of monitoring such individuals being able to accurately identify relevant threats. An additional deficiency in counter-terrorism research, is its dependency on historic and secondary source material. One of various actors in the Netherlands tasked to evaluate and mitigate relevant risks of terrorist suspects and offenders, is the Dutch Probation Service (DPS). In response to today’s prevailing terrorist threat, a specialized section of the DPS is set up to identify and supervise potential problem behaviour of those who are suspected or convicted of terrorism. The authors have been involved in this Unit Terrorism, Extremism and Radicalization (TER) for years. As professionals of TER, the authors have had unique access to both judicial data, such as police files and prosecutor’s data, as to experts in the Dutch field of counter-terrorism. The authors have analysed the pre-sentencing advices of twenty-six clients of the DPS. These files are comprised of several socio-economic, historical, psychopathological and behavioural indicators. The goals are to learn from the analysis of the biographical backgrounds of the suspects and to stimulate the debate on management and supervision of terrorist offenders. 


Keywords


Salafi-Jihadi Terrorism; Primary Source; Early Warning Signs; Reintegration; Probation Services

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2010). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct. New York, USA: Routledge.

Bakker, E. (2006). Jihadi Terrorists In Europe: Their Characteristics And The Circumstances In Which They Joined The Jihad, An Exploratory Study. The Hague, The Netherlands: Clingendaal.

Bakker, E. & de Bont, R. (2016). Belgian and Dutch Jihadist Foreign Fighters (2012–2015): Characteristics, Motivations, and Roles in the War in Syria and Iraq. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27(5), 837-857.

Bartlett, J. & Miller, C. (2012). The Edge of Violence: Towards Telling the Difference Between Violent and Non-Violent Radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence 24(1), 1-21.

Beardsley, N. L., & Beech, A. R. (2013). Applying the violent extremist risk assessment (VERA) to a sample of terrorist case studies. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 5(1), 4-15.

Bjorgo, T. (2011). Dreams And Disillusionment: Engagement In And Disengagement From Militant Extremist Groups. Crime, Law and Social Change 55(4), 277-285.

Blasic, P. (2015, November 19). Waarom is Belgie zo'n vruchtbare bodem voor terreur? HP De Tijd.

Buys, F., Demant, F. & Hamdy, A. (2006). Strijders van eigen bodem. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

Crenshaw, M. (1981). The Causes of Terrorism. Comparative Politics, 13, 379-399.

Duits, N., Rinne, T. & Leyenhorst, M. van (2017). De risicoanalyse van gewelddadig extremisme in het strafrecht. Sancties 2017/4, 215-225.

Eijkman, Q. & Schuurman, B. (2013). Moving Terrorism Research Forward: The Crucial Role of Primary Sources. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Centre of Counter Terrorism, University of Leiden.

Eijkman, Q., Schuurman, B. & Bijen, J. (2011). Pre-incident Indicatoren van Terroristische Voorbereidingshandelingen. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Centre of Counter Terrorism, University of Leiden.

Ellian, A. (2015, June 5). Wie de ouders van jihadisten wél moeten aanklagen. Elsevier.

Feddes, A., Nickolson, L. & Doosje, B. (2015). Triggerfactoren in het Radicaliseringsproces. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Expertise-unit Sociale Stabiliteit, University of Amsterdam.

Geelhoed, F. (2011). Purification and Resistance: Glocal Meanings of Islamic Fundamentalism in the Netherlands. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: University of Rotterdam.

Graaf, B. de & Weggemans, D. (2015). Na de vrijlating. Een exploratieve studie naar recidive en re-integratie van jihadistische ex-gedetineerden. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Reed Business.

Hildebrand, M. & Bosker, J. (2011). Over de Recidive Inschattingsschalen (RISc). In H. Groen, M. Drost & H. Nijman, Handboek Forensische Geestelijke Gezondheidszorg (pp. 387-430). Utrecht, The Netherlands: De Tijdstroom.

Hoffman, P. B. (1983). Screening for Risk: A Revised Salient Factor Score. Journal of Criminal Justice, 539-574.

Horgan, J. (2004). The Case for Firsthand Research. In A. Silke, Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures (pp. 30-56). Hove, United Kingdom : Psychology Press.

Hudson, R. (1999). The Sociology en Psychology of Terrorism: who becomes a terrorist and why. Washington D.C., United States of America: US Government.

Kraemer, H., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., Kessler, R., Jensen, P., & Kupfer, D. (1997). Coming to Terms with the Terms of Risk. Archives of General Psychiatry, 337-343.

Leyenhorst, M. v. (2016). Characteristics and Motivations of Dutch (suspected) Terrorists. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam.

Lloyd, M., & Dean, C. (2015). The development of structured guidelines for assessing risk in extremist offenders. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(1), 40-52.

Maghan, J. & Kelly, R. J. (1989). Terrorism and corrections: The incarcerated radical. In J. R. Buckwalter, (Ed.), International terrorism: The decade ahead (pp.29-53). Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, Office of Criminal Justice.

Ministery of Safety & Justice. (2016). Policy Framework Veiligheidshuizen. The Hague, The Netherlands: Ministery of Safety & Justice.

Moghaddam, F. (2005). The Staircase to Terrorism: A Psychological Exploration. American Psychologist 60(2), 161-169.

Monahan, J. (2012). The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism. Psychology, Public Policy and Law 18(2), 167-205.

Pressman, E. & Flockton, J. (2012). Calibrating Risk For Violent Political Extremists And Terrorists: the VERA 2 Structured Assessment. British Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 237-251.

Pressman, E., Duits, N., Rinne, T. & Flockton, J. (2016). VERA-2R Violent Extremism Risk Assessment Version 2 Revised: a Structured Professional Judgement Approach. Utrecht, The Netherlands: NIFP/DJI.

Pressman, E. (2009). Risk Assessment Decisions for Violent Political Extremism. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Public Safety.

Reclassering Nederland. (2016). Handleiding/Manual RISc4. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Reclassering Nederland.

Renout, F. (2015, November 7). Van de banlieuerellen tot Charlie Hebdo: de frustraties zijn gebleven. Vrij Nederland.

Roberts, K. & Horgan, J. (2008). Risk Assessment and the Terrorist. Perspectives on Terrorism. Perspectives on Terrorism 2(6).

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia, United States of America: University of Pennsylvania.

Sarma, K.M. (2017). Risk assessment and the prevention of radicalization from nonviolence into terrorism. American Psychologist, 72(3), 278-288.

Schmid, A. (2013). Radicalization, Deradicalization, Counter Radicalization: a Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Centre of Counter Terrorism, University Leiden.

Schmid, A. (2014). Al-Qaeda’s Single Narrative and Attempts to Develop Counnumberrratives: A State of Knowledge. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Centre of Counter Terrorism, University of Leiden.

Schuurman, B. & Horgan, J. (2016). Rationales For Terrorist Violence In Homegrown Jihadist Groups: A Case Study from The Netherlands. Aggression and Violent Behavior 27, 55-63.

Targhi Bakkali, H. (2015, January 20). Vader omgekomen jihadist: 'Ik had hem thuis in gijzeling moeten nemen'. Het Parool.

Venhaus, J. (2010). Why Youth Join al-Qaeda. Washington D.C. United States of America: United States Institute of Peace.

Vermeulen, F. & Bovenkerk, F. (2012). Engaging with Violent Islamic Extremism, Local Policies in Western European Cities. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.

Vervaeke, L. (2017, juni 8). Belgische politie schoot tekort bij aanslagen. De Volkskrant.

Weenink, A. (2015). Behavioural Problems and Disorders among Radicals in Police Files. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(2), 16-33.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Maarten van Leyenhorst, Ada Andreas

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2363-9849 

Proud Member of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)