Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework
Keywords:Radicalization, De-Radicalization, Youth, Violent Extremism, Canada
Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.
Abbas, T. (2007). Islamic political radicalism: A European perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Angus Reid Institute. (2016). Most Canadians view Muslim community as a “partner,” not a “problem” in the fight against radicalization. Retrieved July 11, 2016, from http://angusreid.org/homegrown-terrorism-radicalization-canada-overblown-serious-threat/
Altier, M. B., Boyle, E. L., Shortland, N. D., & Horgan, J. G. (2017). Why they leave: An analysis of terrorist disengagement events from eighty-seven autobiographical accounts. Security Studies, 26(2). 305-322.
Altier, M. B., Thoroughgood, C. N., & Horgan, J. G. (2014). Turning away from terrorism: Lessons from psychology, sociology, and criminology. Journal of Peace Research, 51(5). 647-661.
Bartlett, J., & Miller, C. (2012). The Edge of Violence: Towards Telling the Difference Between Violent and Non-Violent Radicalization. Terrorism & Political Violence, 24(1), 1.
Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559.
Bell, S. (2014). ISIS urges jihadists to attack Canadians: ‘You will not feel secure in your bedrooms.’ Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://news.nationalpost.com/news/world/isis-urges-jihadists-to-attack-canadians-you-will-not-feel-secure-in-your-bedrooms
Bell, S. (2016). Canadian Council of Imams to open ‘deradicalization clinics’ to battle ‘growing problem’ of extremism. Retrieved May 10, 2016 from http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/canadian-council-of-imams-to-open-deradicalization-clinics-to-battle-growing-problem-of-extremism
Bizina, M., & Gray, D. H. (2014). Radicalization of youth as a growing concern for counter- terrorism policy. Global Security Studies, 5(1), 72-79.
Bovenkerk, F. (2011). On leaving criminal organizations. Crime, Law and Social Change 55(4). 261–276.
Briggs, R. (2010). Community engagement for counterterrorism: Lessons from the United Kingdom. International Affairs, 86(4). 971-981
Burnaby School District. (2016). Community schools. Retrieved August 1, 2016 from, http://sd41.bc.ca/schools/community/
Calgary Police Department. (2016a). Youth intervention. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from, http://www.calgary.ca/cps/Pages/Youth-programs-and-resources/Youth-intervention/ReDirect.aspx
Calgary Police Department. (2016b). ReDirect. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from, http://www.calgary.ca/cps/SiteAssets/Pages/Youth-programs-and-resources/Youth-intervention/ReDirect/ReDirect_postcard.pdf
Chin, V. (2015). Collateral damage of counter-terrorism measures and the inevitable consequence of the social exclusion and marginalization of vulnerable groups. In M. Lombardi et al. (Eds.) Countering radicalisation and violent extremism among youth to prevent terrorism. (pp. 11-22).
Washington, DC: IOS Press
Costanza, W. A. (2015). Adjusting our gaze: An alternative approach to understanding youth radicalization. Journal of Strategic Security, 8(1), 1-15. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0422.214.171.1248
Cullen, C. (2014). Harper government seeks advice on how jihadists use internet. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/harper-government-seeks-advice-on-how-jihadis-use-internet-1.2793108
CPRLV. (2016a). History. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from https://info-radical.org/en/who-are-we/history/
CPRLV. (2016b). Our approach. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from https://info-radical.org/en/approach/
CPRLV. (2016c). Guides and tools. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from https://info-radical.org/en/to-train/guides-and-tools/
Creswell, J. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.
Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2013). Promoting exit from violent extremism: Theme and approaches. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(2). 99-115.
Dechesne, M. (2011). Deradicalization: not soft, but strategic. Crime, Law And Social Change, 55(4), 287-292. doi:10.1007/s10611-011-9283-8
El-Said, H. (2015). New Approaches to Countering Terrorism: Designing and Evaluating Counter Radicalization and De-Radicalization Programs. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ekici, S. (2015). Countering violent extremism among youth: The Turkish case. In M. Lombardi et al. (Eds.) Countering radicalisation and violent extremism among youth to prevent terrorism. (pp. 171-182). Washington, DC: IOS Press
Freeze, C., & Stone, L. (2016). Ottawa pledges deradicalization hire despite scepticism at anti-terror effectiveness. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/feds-eyeing-counselling-for-terror-suspects-under-peace-ponds-goodale/article31441709/
Gaudet, S. (2007). Emerging adulthood: A new stage in the life course: Implications for policy development. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from http://www.horizons.gc.ca/eng/content/3-emerging-adulthood-new-stage-life-course
Gayle, D. (2016). Prevent strategy 'could end up promoting extremism.' Retrieved June 11, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/apr/21/government-prevent-strategy-promoting-extremism-maina-kiai
Goddard, J. (2010). Collective case study. In Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. (pp. 164- 166). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412957397.n59
Halliday, J. (2016). Almost 4,000 people referred to UK deradicalisation scheme last year. Retrieved July 17, 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/mar/20/almost-4000-people-were-referred-to-uk-deradicalisation-scheme-channel-last-year
Harris, K. (2010). Review: Disillusionment with radical social groups. Proceedings of the 1st Australian Counter Terrorism Conference.
HM Government. (2015). Channel duty guidance protecting vulnerable people from being drawn into terrorism: Statutory guidance for Channel panel members and partners of local panels. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/425189/Channel_Duty_Guidance_April_2015.pdf
HM Government. (2010). Channel: Supporting individuals vulnerable to recrtuiment by violent extremists. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from http://tna.europarchive.org/20100419081706/http:/security.homeoffice.gov.uk/news-publications/publication-search/prevent/channel-guidance?view=Binary
Human Rights Watch. (2014). Iraq: ISIS abducting, killing, expelling minorities. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/07/19/iraq-isis-abducting-killing-expelling-minorities
Jacoby, T. A. (2016). How the war was ‘one’: Countering violent extremism and the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in Canada. Journal for Deradicalization, Spring(6), 272-304.
Kilford, C. (2014). Kilford: Canada’s first de-radicalization program. Retrieved July 18, 2016, from http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/kilford-canadas-first-de-radicalization-program
Koehler, D. (2015). De-radicalization and disengagement programs as counter-terrorism and prevent tools. Insights from field experiences regarding German right-wing extremism and jihadism. In M. Lombardi et al. (Eds.) Countering radicalisation and violent extremism among youth to prevent terrorism. (pp. 120-150). Washington, DC: IOS Press
Koehler, D. (2016). Understanding Deradicalisation. Methods, Tools and Programs for Countering Violent Extremism. New York: Routledge.
Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J., Bélanger, J. J., Sheveland, A., Hetiarachchi, M., & Gunaratna, R. (2014). The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization: How significance quest impacts violent extremism. Political Psychology, 35(1), 69-93. doi:10.1111/pops.12163
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved June 10, 2016, from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
Monaghan, J. (2014). Security traps and discourses of radicalization: Examining surveillance practices targeting Muslims in Canada. Surveillance & Society, 12(4), 485-501. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412950589.n909
Nasser, S. (2015). Ottawa’s deradicalization focus much too narrow, reformed skinhead says. Retrieved June 11, 2016, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa-s-de-radicalization-focus-much-too-narrow-reformed-skinhead-says-1.2981671
Özerdem, A., & Podder, S. (2011). Disarming youth combatants: Mitigating youth radicalization and violent extremism. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(4), 63-80. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-04126.96.36.199
Porges, M. (2011) Reform school for radicals. The American Interest, 6(6). 1-7
Porta, D. D., & Lafree, G. (2012). Guest editorial: Processes of radicalization and de- radicalization. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6(1), 4-10.
PSC (Public Safety Canada). (2013). Risk assessment decisions for violent political extremism 2009-02. Retrieved May 12, 2016, from http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2009-02-rdv/index-en.aspx#Radicalization2
Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, S., Ghez, J., & Bouceck, C. (2010). Deradicalizing Islamist extremists. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation
RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police). (2014). Integrated national security enforcement teams. Retrieved July 25, 2016, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/secur/insets-eisn-eng.htm
RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police). (2011). Definition of radicalization. Retrieved July 25, 2016, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/nsci-ecsn/rad/internet/p2-eng.htm
Seawright, J., & Gerring, J. (2008). Case selection techniques in case study research: A menu of qualitative and quantitative options. Political Research Quarterly, 61(2), 294-308.
Shepard, M. (2016). What to do about the next Aaron Driver. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from https://www.thestar.com/news/atkinsonseries/generation911/2016/08/21/what-to-do-about-the-next-aaron-driver.html
Spears, R. (2011). Group identities: The social identity perspective. In Seth Schwartz, Koen Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(3), 224-237.
Stevens, D. (2011). Reasons to be fearful, one, two, three: The ‘preventing violent extremism’ agenda. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 13(2), 165-188.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin & s. Worchel (Eds.). The social psychology of intergroup relations. (pp. 33-48). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole
Thomas, P. (2010). Failed and friendless: The UK’s ‘Prevent
ing Violence Extremism’ programme. British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 12(3), 442-458.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). (2013). Definition of youth. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/youth/fact-sheets/youth-definition.pdf
Upal, A. (2015). Alternative narratives for preventing the radicalization of Muslim youth. Journal for Deradicalization, Spring(2), 138-162.
Van San, M, Sieckelinck, S., de Winter, M. (2014). Ideals adrift: An educational approach to radicalization. Ethics and Education, 8(3), 276-289
Veenkamp, I., & Zeiger, S. (2015). Countering violent extremism: Program and policy approaches relating to youth through education, families, and communities. In M. Lombardi et al. (Eds.) Countering radicalisation and violent extremism among youth to prevent terrorism. (pp. 151-163). Washington, DC: IOS Press
Wade, J. (2015). Canada needs a stronger deradicalization program. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from http://thesentinel.ca/canada-needs-a-stronger-deradicalization-program/
Whitton, M. (2015). Prevent or pursuit? The government’s new deradicalization strategy. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from https://newint.org/features/web-exclusive/2015/07/14/prevent-terrorism-programme/
Williams, M. J., & Lindsey, S. C. (2014). A social psychological critique of the Saudi terrorism risk reduction initiative. Pyschology, Crime, and Law, (20)2, 135-151.
Wilton, K. (2016). Canadian government pledges $35 million to fight radicalization. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://montrealgazette.com/news/canadian-government-pledges-35-million-to-fight-radicalization
The JD Journal for Deradicalization uses a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) Licence. You are free to share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following conditions:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, andindicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.