Large Bowel Perforation in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A South African Perspective

  • Jocelynn Norman Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Group, Department of Surgery, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban
  • Yoshan Moodley Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town ~ Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Group, Department of Surgery, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban
Keywords: Colorectal Neoplasms, Intestinal Perforation, Intestine, Large, South Africa

Abstract

Introduction: Large bowel perforation (LBP) occurs in up to 10% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and is a potential surgical emergency. Data on LBP in CRC patients from resource-limited countries are required to improve the management of this condition in these settings. Our study aimed to describe LBP amongst CRC patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive sub-analysis of LBP data from an ongoing CRC registry. This study explores free and contained perforations and describes LBP characteristics, surgical management, histological findings, overall survival, and CRC recurrence. Results: Ninety-four out of 2523 CRC patients had LBP (3.7%). The median age was 53.0 years (interquartile range: 43.0–64.0). The male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. Thirty-three patients (35.1%) had a coexisting bowel obstruction. Tumor site perforations occurred in 87 patients (92.6%) and were mostly in the sigmoid colon (36.2%). Perforations were contained in 77 patients (81.9%). Eighty-nine patients (94.7%) underwent resection (elective resection: 76/89 patients, 85.4%). The post-operative inpatient mortality rate was 2.2%. Most patients had Stage III CRC (46 patients, 48.9%) and moderately differentiated tumors (77 patients, 81.9%). Overall survival at 12 months following CRC diagnosis was 55.4%. The early recurrence rate for CRC disease was 5.4%. Conclusion: Tumor site perforations predominated, and most were contained. Patients were younger when compared with the international literature. We reaffirm that diastatic-free and contained perforations are two distinct clinical entities.

Published
2023-01-05
How to Cite
1.
Norman J, Moodley Y. Large Bowel Perforation in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A South African Perspective. J Cancer Allied Spec [Internet]. 2023Jan.5 [cited 2023Feb.3];9(1). Available from: https://journals.sfu.ca/jcas/index.php/jcas/article/view/517
Section
Original Research Article