Indoleamine 2,3- Dioxygenase: A Novel Immunotherapeutic Target for Osteosarcoma
Introduction: Tumour-emitted molecules induce immunosuppression in the tumour microenvironment. An immunosuppressive enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO/IDO1), facilitates immune escape in several malignant tumours, including osteosarcoma. Upregulation of IDO establishes a tolerogenic environment in the tumour and the tumour-draining lymph nodes. IDO-induced downregulation of effector T-cells and upregulation of local regulatory T-cells creates immunosuppression and promotes metastasis. Observations: Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumour characterised by immature bone formation by the tumour cells. Almost 20% of osteosarcoma patients present with pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The improvement in therapeutic modalities for osteosarcoma has been in a stagnant phase for two decades. Therefore, the development of novel immunotherapeutic targets for osteosarcoma is emergent. High IDO expression is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. Conclusion and Relevance: At present, only a few studies are available describing IDO’s role in osteosarcoma. This review describes the prospects of IDO not only as a prognostic marker but also as an immunotherapeutic target for osteosarcoma.
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