Infantile T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: a Case Report
Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children, with a male predominance. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia is usually of B-cell lineage; T-cell leukemia is uncommon and extremely rare under one year of age. Mixed-lineage leukemia gene rearrangement is the best-known hallmark of infantile leukemia and is a poor prognostic indicator. While multi-agent high dose chemotherapy remains the first line of treatment for pediatric T-ALL, there are numerous side effects of these regimens, and most patients undergo relapse. Due to the rarity of the disease, treatment protocols for infantile T-ALL have not been established to date. Clinical description: We present a case of a 7-month-old Pakistani male that presented with fever and cough and was subsequently diagnosed with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. T-ALL was diagnosed on flow cytometry. Due to poor prognosis, the patient was assigned palliative care. Practical implications: Management of infantile leukemia has yet to be studied in-depth. With a lack of clear treatment guidelines, the approach towards these patients remains challenging. Further research and clinical trials in this area of study are paramount to improving clinical outcomes for these young patients.
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