Presentation of Acute Lymphoblastic Lymphoma and Colorectal Carcinoma in the Context of Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome (CMMRD): a Case Report with Literature Review
Introduction: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease-carrying an increased risk of cancers (pediatric tumors of central nervous system, haemato-lymphoid malignancies along with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer(s), which are usually seen in the second and third decade) leading to syndromic presentation. Causal mutations are detected in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, including MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 that are also known for their established role in Lynch syndrome. We describe a case of CMMRD with an earlier (first decade of life) presentation of mediastinal acute lymphoblastic lymphoma and colorectal malignancy. Case Presentation: A five-year-old boy presented with respiratory complaints, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, multiple café au lait macules (CALMs) on the lower back, history of parental consanguinity with the death of three sisters due to brain tumor within 6 months of diagnosis. Computerized tomographic (CT) scan chest revealed a huge mediastinal mass. The patient underwent a trucut-biopsy of the mass. The results were significant for a pre T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma. Suspicion of CMMRD was raised based on a combination of factors described above. A panel of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins was applied on the biopsy tissue that revealed loss of nuclear expression of MLH1 and PMS2 immunostaining in tumor cells with positive external controls. While on maintenance therapy for lymphoma, about a year later, the patient developed sub-acute intestinal obstruction due to a stenosing polypoidal circumferential tumor in the mid-sigmoid colon found on flexible sigmoidoscopy that was followed by endoscopic biopsies and insertion of a fully-covered self-expanding metallic adult biliary stent with a diameter of 10 mm and length of 6 cm leading to immediate relief of obstruction. Biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Metastatic tumor deposits were seen in the omentum, anterior abdominal wall, and the left peritoneal wall. Practical Implications: Earlier (first decade) presentation of gastrointestinal malignancy warrants that an earlier screening through radiological scans for any possible tumors and MMR protein expression analysis (loss in tumor plus normal non-tumor cells) are essential in patients having CALMs and family history of pediatric tumors.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Cancer & Allied Specialties (JCAS) right-of-first publication. In addition, the work will be simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. This license allows others to share the work in whole or part (for non-commercial purpose), with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in JCAS.
Furthermore, authors are free to enter into separate contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work, with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to share their work online or in medical or scientific conferences prior to or during submission process.