• Noor Muhammad Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
  • Ramsha Nawaz Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
  • Faiz Ali Khan Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
  • Humaira Naeemi Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
  • Muhammad Usman Rashid Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore


Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Several genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors are involved in the aetiology of this disease. Genetic risk factors include alterations (mutations) in genes conferring risks to develop breast cancer. Depending on the associated lifetime risks of this malignancy, these genes are categorised into high-, moderate- and low-risk genes. Women carrying mutations in these genes are at an increased risk to develop breast cancer, ovarian cancer and several other malignancies. Breast carcinoma is the most reported malignancy in Pakistani females. Pakistan is a developing country with most of its population living in rural areas; hence, optimal healthcare facilities are inadequate for the early diagnosis and prevention of this disease. Hence, identification of individuals carrying mutations is clinically relevant as different strategies are available for the early detection, risk reduction and better management of this malignancy. This review summarises the findings of the major studies conducted in Pakistan to investigate the contribution of breast cancer predisposing genes. Furthermore, implications of the current studies and future research potentials are discussed.

Key words: Breast cancer gene 1/2, breast cancer, checkpoint kinase 2, genetic susceptibility, Pakistan, RAD51C, tumour Protein p53, Vitamin D receptor

Author Biographies

Noor Muhammad, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
Research Associate, Department of Basic Sciences Research
Ramsha Nawaz, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
Department of Basic Sciences Research
Faiz Ali Khan, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
Research Associate, Department of Basic Sciences Research
Humaira Naeemi, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
Research Associate, Department of Basic Sciences Research
Muhammad Usman Rashid, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore
Senior Research Scientist, Basic Sciences Research


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How to Cite
Muhammad N, Nawaz R, Khan FA, Naeemi H, Rashid MU. INHERITED GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BREAST CANCER IN PAKISTAN. J Cancer Allied Spec [Internet]. 2018Jul.1 [cited 2021Sep.27];4(2). Available from: