IS ACROMEGALY A HYPERCOAGULABLE CONDITION? CASE REPORTS AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction: Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with uncontrolled acromegaly. However, there are no published reports of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in such patients. We report three patients with uncontrolled acromegaly who presented with VTE.
Clinical Cases: A 52-year-old male with uncontrolled acromegaly despite transsphenoidal (TSP) surgery and medical therapy presented in 2012 with acute chest pain and shortness of breath that was later con rmed as secondary to pulmonary embolism. A 44-year-old male immigrant, previously treated for acromegaly with radiation therapy alone, in 1992, in his native country, was referred to our centre in 2006 for acromegaly which remained uncontrolled despite medical therapy until 2009 when he achieved remission through TSP surgery. He had several episodes of VTE between 2008 and 2010. A 69-year-old male with uncontrolled acromegaly for 28 years despite two surgical resections and radiation therapy in 1986 and 1992, as well as continuous medical therapy, presented with VTE of the right axillary vein and bilateral pulmonary emboli in 2011. A thrombophilia screen in case 1 showed mild protein S de ciency, case 2 was homozygous for factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation and case 3 was heterozygous for FVL. Extensive investigations revealed no evidence of malignancy and echocardiography showed preserved ejection fraction in all three patients.
Conclusion: Patients with uncontrolled acromegaly may be at increased risk of VTE. However, larger studies are required to further assess this association and determine the underlying cause.
Key words: Acromegaly, pituitary tumours, thromboembolism
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