UNRAVELING CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT BY STUDYING MUNICIPAL PRACTICES

Vinitha Siebers, Gerda van Dijk, Rob van Eijbergen

Abstract


Citizen engagement can take various forms and is receiving a great deal of interest, especially in municipalities, which are embracing citizen engagement and searching for ways to integrate it in their day to day work. In theory development, the concept of citizen engagement is captured with various terms covering numerous aspects. This leads to inconsistency and ambiguity and can lead to unproductive debates among those who organize it. Empirical research on how municipalities develop citizen engagement is still limited. This article aims at a deeper understanding of the phenomenon by exploring dominant patterns in the way municipalities organize citizen engagement, the role of those involved and practices that emerge. This article builds on empirical research in 4 Dutch municipalities, 1 Danish municipality and 1 South African municipality. It appears that in practice, citizen engagement comes with a complex dynamic. Organizing citizen engagement affects the entire municipality and can be seen as an intervention in the municipal organization and those involved. 

 

Key words: citizen engagement, municipalities, local practices.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adler, R.P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What do we mean by “civic engagement”? Journal of Transformative Education, 3(3): 236-253.

Andrew, C., & Goldsmith, M. (1998). From local government to local governance—and beyond? International Political Science Review, 19(2): 101-117.

Arnstein, S.R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4),:216-224.

Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.

Bryson, J.M., Crosby, B.C., & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public value governance: Moving beyond traditional public administration and the new public management. Public Administration Review, 74(4): 445-456.

Bryson, J.M., Quick, K.S., Slotterback, C.S., & Crosby, B.C. (2013). Designing public participation processes. Public Administration Review, 73(1): 23-34.

Brandsen, T., Verschuere, B., & Steen, T. (Eds.). (2018). Co-Production and Co-Creation: Engaging Citizens in Public Services. New York: Routledge.

Cameron, K.S., & Quinn, R.E. (2006). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture:Based on the competing values framework. Revised ed. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.

Callahan, K. (2007). Citizen participation: Models and methods. International Journal of Public Administration, 30(11): 1179-1196.

Carpini, M.X.D., Cook, F.L., & Jacobs, L.R. (2004). Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: A review of the empirical literature. Annual Review of Political Science, 7: 315-344.

Cooper, T.L., Bryer, T.A., & Meek, J.W. (2006), Citizen-centered collaborative public management. Public Administration Review, 66(S1): 76-88.

Cooper, T.L., & Menzel, D.C. (2013). Achieving ethical competence for public service leadership. London: M.E. Sharpe.

Coursey, D., Yang, K., & Pandey, S.K. (2012). Public service motivation (PSM) and supportfor citizen participation: A test of Perry and Vandenabeele’s reformulation of PSM theory. Public Administration Review, 72(4): 572-582.

Creighton, J.L. (2005). The public participation handbook: Making better decisions through citizen involvement. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Denhardt, J.V., & Denhardt, R.B (2011). The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering (3rd ed). Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Democracy Index report (2017). Democracy Index 2017 Free speech under attack. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit.

Dijk van, G.M., & van Loon, R. (2019). European Commission Leading Diversity by Dialogue. In R. Koonce & R. Loon (Ed.), The Dialogical Challenge of Leadership Development (pp. 125-138). Charlotte: Information age Publishing.

Drazkiewicz, A., Challies, E., & Newig, J. (2015). Public participation and local environmental planning: Testing factors influencing decision quality and implementation in four case studies from Germany. Land Use Policy, 46: 211-222.

Dubois, A., & Gadde, L.E. (2002). Systematic combining: an abductive approach to case research. Journal of Business research, 55(7): 553-560.

Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4):532-550.

Ekman, J., & Amnå, E. (2012). Political participation and civic engagement: Towards a new typology. Human Affairs, 22(3): 283–300.

English, C. (2011). Civic engagement highest in developed countries. Gallup World Report. https://news.gallup.com/poll/145589/Civic-Engagement-Highest-Developed- Countries.aspx#1, Retrieved January 2018.

Elelman, R., & Feldman, D.F. (2018). The future of citizen engagement in cities—the council of citizen engagement in sustainable urban strategies (ConCensus). Futures, 101(2018): 80-91.

Fischer, F. (2000). Citizens, experts, and the environment: The politics of local knowledge. London: Duke University Press.

Fung, A. (2006). Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public Administration Review, 66: 66-75.

Fung, A. (2007). Mini-publics: Deliberative designs and their consequences. In Rosenberg, S. (Ed.), Deliberation, Participation, and Democracy: Can the People Govern? (pp. 159-183). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Fung, A. (2015). Putting the public back into governance: The challenges of citizen participation and its future. Public Administration Review, 75(4): 513-522.

Gaventa, J. (2002). Exploring citizenship, participation and accountability. IDS bulletin, 33(2): 1-14.

Gaventa, J., & Barrett, G. (2010). So what difference does it make? Mapping the outcomes of citizen engagement. IDS Working Papers, 2010(347): 1-72.

Gidey, D.G. (2017). The role of public participation in environmental impact assessment in Ethiopia: Theory and practice.

Graham, K.A., & Phillips, S.D. (1998). Citizen engagement: Lessons in participation from local government (Vol. 22). Institute of Public Administration of Canada.

Held, D. (1987). Models of Democracy. London: Polity.

Hersey, P., Blanchard, K.H., & Johnson, D.E. (2007). Management of organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Upper Saddle River: Prentice hall.

Hurenkamp, M., Tonkens, E., & Duyvendak, J.W. (2006). Wat burgers bezielt. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam/NICIS Kenniscentrum Grote Steden.

Irvin, R., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision-making: Is it worth the effort?, Public Administration Review, 64(1): 55-65.

Johns, G. (1983). Organizational Behavior: Under-standing Life at Work. Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company.

King, C.S., Feltey, K.M., & Susel, B.O.N. (1998). The question of participation: Toward authentic public participation in public administration. Public Administration Review, 58(4): 317-326.

Lee, C.W. (2014). Do-it-yourself democracy: The rise of the public engagement industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loeffler, E., & Bovaird, T. (2018). From participation to co-production: widening and deepening the contributions of citizens to public services and outcomes. In The Palgrave handbook of public administration and management in Europe (pp. 403-423). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lowndes, V., Pratchett, L., & Stoker, G. (2001). Trends in public participation: part 1–local government perspectives. Public Administration, 79(1): 205-222.

McLaverty, P. (2017). Is public participation a good thing?. In Public participation and innovations in community governance (pp. 185-197). London: Routledge.

Michels, A., & De Graaf, L. (2010). Examining citizen participation: Local participatory policy making and democracy. Local Government Studies, 36(4): 477-491.

Moore, M.H. (1995). Creating public value: Strategic management in government.Cambridge: Harvard university press.

Mostert, E. (2003). The challenge of public participation. Water Policy, 5(2): 179-197.

Nabatchi, T., & Amsler, L.B. (2014). Direct public engagement in local government. The American Review of Public Administration, 44(4S): 63S-88S.

Nabatchi, T., & Leighninger, M. (2015). Public participation for 21st century democracy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Newman, J., Barnes, M., Sullivan, H., & Knops, A. (2004). Public participation and collaborative governance. Journal of social policy, 33(2): 203-223.

Nylen, W.R. (2002). Testing the empowerment thesis: the participatory budget in Belo Horizonte and Betim, Brazil. Comparative politics, 34(2): 127-145.

Osborne, S.P. (2006). New Public Governance?, Public Management Review, 8(3): 377-387.

Osborne, S.P. (Ed.) (2010). The New Public Governance. London: Routledge.

Ospina, S. M. (2017). Collective leadership and context in public administration: Bridging public leadership research and leadership studies. Public Administration Review, 77(2): 275-287.

Ritz, A., Nuemann, O., & Vandenabeele, W. (2016). Motivation in public sector.

Roberts, N. (2004). Public deliberation in an age of direct citizen participation. American Review of Public Administration, 34(4): 315-353.

Rose, L.E. (2002). Municipal size and local nonelectoral participation: findings from Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 20(6): 829-851.

Rowe, G., & Frewer, L.J. (2004). Evaluating public-participation exercises: a research agenda. Science, technology, & human values, 29(4): 512-556.

Sarros, J.C., Cooper, B.K., & Santora, J.C. (2008). Building a climate for innovation through transformational leadership and organizational culture. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(2): 145-158.

Schein, E.H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bas.

Siebers, V.M. (2019) How to organize citizen engagement: experiences of Dutch municipalities. Administratio Publica, 27(3):128-143.

Siebers, V.M. (2020). Citizen engagement in local governments: the role of organizational culture. Administratio Publica 28(1): 158- 177.

Siebers, V. (2018). Citizen engagement in South Africa: the case Prince Albert. International Journal of Public Leadership, 14(4): 232-244.

Siebers, V., & Torfing, J. (2018). Co-creation as a new form of citizen engagement: Comparing Danish and Dutch experiences at the local government level. International Public Management Review, 18(2): 187-208.

Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2018). Co-initiation of collaborative innovation in urban spaces, Urban Affairs Review, 54(2): 388-418.

van der Steen, M.M. (2016). Tijdig bestuur: Strategisch omgaan met voorspelbare verrassingen. NSOB Erasmus Universiteit: Rotterdam.

Stoker, G. (2006). Public value management: a new narrative for networked governance?. The American Review of Public Administration, 36(1): 41-57.

Thomas, J.C. (1995). Public participation in public decisions: New skills and strategies for public managers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tonkens, E., & Verhoeven, I. (2018). The civic support paradox: Fighting unequal participation in deprived neighbourhoods. Urban Studies, 0042098018761536.

Torfing, J., Sørensen, E., & Røiseland, A. (2016). Transforming the public sector into an arena for co- creation: Barriers, drivers, benefits, and ways forward. Administration &Society, doi: 0095399716680057.

Varieties of Democracy (2018a). Participatory Democracy Index. Online: https://www.v-dem.net/en/analysis/VariableGraph/ retrieved on 13 December 2018.

Varieties of Democracy (2018b). Deliberative democracy index. Online: https://www.v-dem.net/en/analysis/VariableGraph/ retrieved on 13 December 2018.

Verhoeven, I., & Tonkens, E. (2018). Joining the Citizens: Forging New Collaborations Between Government and Citizens in Deprived Neighborhoods. In From Austerity to Abundance? Creative Approaches to Coordinating the Common Good (pp. 161-179). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Voorberg, W., Bekkers, V., & Tummers, L. (2015). A Systematic Review of Co-Creation and Co- Production: embarking on social innovation journey. Public Management Review, 17(9): 1333-1357.

Wang, X., & Wan Wart, M. (2007). When public participation in administration leads to trust: An empirical assessment of managers’ perceptions. Public Administration Review, 67(2): 265-278.

Yin, R.K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Copyright © 2014 by IPMN. All Rights Reserved.