Corresponsales extranjeros en África Subsahariana: Un paradigma comunicativo en evolución

Paulo Nuno Vicente

Resumen


Una parte importante de nuestro conocimiento cotidiano de África al sur del Sahara proviene de la labor de los periodistas internacionales. A pesar de que estos actores desempeñan un papel fundamental en la comunicación sobre los Otros distantes, frecuentemente criticados por su déficit de representación, el trabajo académico de investigación empírica sobre la labor de los corresponsales extranjeros se ha descuidado considerablemente. Las investigaciones disponibles carecen de un examen sistemático de las realidades sobre el periodismo en África, así como de la evolución del trabajo de los profesionales y los amateurs con el apoyo de los medios digitales en línea. En este artículo se analiza la evolución de las culturas profesionales de los individuos (micro). Al mismo tiempo, inspecciona trayectorias a largo plazo en el periodismo internacional, combinado con la evolución a corto plazo, basado en las transformaciones en la microelectrónica y la digitalización. Se presenta la primera encuesta en línea panafricana con periodistas internacionales, que recoge respuestas de de 124 participantes en 41 países. Estos resultados se complementan con entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 43 profesionales, con sede en Nairobi, Dakar y Johannesburgo. Los resultados cuestionan la narrativa de la cobertura de eventos internacionales como especie en extinción. En cambio, apuntan una visión matizada hacia continuidades y rupturas localizadas en el medio ambiente mediático post-industrial contemporáneo. El perfil socio demográfico describe una situación bastante precaria en los corresponsales internacionales, en especial en el caso de los profesionales freelance; mientras que el uso de los medios digitales está dando lugar a una confederación en diferentes estratos de corresponsalías diferenciadas.

Palabras clave


Foreign correspondent; international news reporting; multidimensional network of correspondences; networked journalism; pro-am; social media.

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