Vol 13, No 7 (2018): International Students in American Higher Education: A Quantitative Study Comparing Their Distribution from Both the Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives and the Implications on Policy-Making

This study applies the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Kruskal-Wallis test to explore the significant differences in international student populations among five American regions from both the synchronic and diachronic perspectives. The study found significant differences in international student populations among the five American regions in 2016. Further, Northeastern, Southeastern, and Midwestern regions had significantly larger international student populations in 2016 than in 2015, while Western and Southwestern regions did not. The variables of climate, geographic location, and the population of immigrants were found to be the main reasons for the distribution of international students. The findings suggest four potential strategies for promoting the internationalization of higher education and the enrollment of international students. The article concludes by recommending three areas for possible future research.

Vol 13, No 6 (2018): The Development of Doctoral Degree Curriculum in England: Perspectives from Professional Doctoral Degree Graduates

Thisarticleinvestigateswhypotentialdoctoralstudentsdecidedtoenroll in a professional doctorate program instead of a traditional Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and how it enhanced their professional development and career promotion. Twenty professional doctorate graduates were invited to participate in this study, which was guided by the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT). The article reveals that the program offers the flexibility for professionals to enjoy the rigorous education at the doctoral level. Second, the curriculum allows graduates to apply both theories and practical applications directly into their current workplace. Third, the lecturers enhance the professional doctorate graduates’ life experience. This study provides recommendations for university administrators, policymakers, organizational employers, and potential doctoral students in the United Kingdom and other Anglophone countries.

Vol 13, No 5 (2018): Implementation of the Teacher Professional Growth and Effectiveness System in Rural Kentucky High Schools

A focus on improving teacher quality and student achievement led many states to implement teacher effectiveness systems. The Charlotte Danielson Framework for Teaching was adapted by Kentucky as the Teacher Professional Growth and Effectiveness System (TPGES). This study examined educator viewpoints concerning the impact of TPGES on improving teacher quality and student achievement, educator attitude for implementation, time requirement, and the potential to impact teacher growth and student learning. Teacher and principal triangulated data indicated mixed viewpoints concerning the impact of TPGES implementation on improving teacher quality and improving student learning. The data did not indicate positive educator attitudes for the implementation and time requirement for TPGES. Study implications focused on five identified dispositions relevant for all educators striving to implement innovative change initiatives.

Vol 13, No 4 (2018): Identifying Good Teachers: Expert Versus Ordinary Knowledge

While much has been written about the effects of standardized testing on student achievement, less work has addressed how parents take up this information. Drawing on a survey of 286 parents in a diverse urban school district, this research illuminates three aspects of parental response to test score information: 1) how parents relate various teacher traits to quality teaching; 2) how parents know if their child has a good teacher; and 3) how parents think teachers should be evaluated. Results show that test score data are perceived as both imperfect and incomplete with regard to measuring teacher quality, and that parents often rely more on “ordinary” forms of knowledge. This raises questions about the value of test data as an informational spur to reform.

Vol 13, No 3 (2018): Examining the Value Aspiring Principals Place on Various Instructional Strategies in Principal Preparation

This article reports on a study of the value master’s students in a principal preparation program placed on a variety of instructional strategies. The aspiring principals completed a survey with fixed-response and open-ended items. The students’ most valued class discussions were about how their personal experiences related to the class topic and how to apply the topic to practice. The class activities they valued the most highly were problem solving, simulations, small-group discussions, and whole-group discussions. The highest rated out-of-class assignments included writing reflective papers, conducting interviews and observations, and performing leadership activities in schools. The types of readings the master’s students most appreciated were case studies and journal articles. In describing their “outstanding professor,” the aspiring principals focused on the professor’s personal qualities, creation of a positive learning environment, and constructivist teaching.

Vol 13, No 2 (2018): Educational Decentralization Efforts in a Centralized Country: Saudi Tatweer Principals’ Perceptions of their New Authorities

This study captures the perspectives of school principals in Saudi Arabia regarding the new authorities granted to them as part of their country’s education decentralization efforts. Specifically, it explores these principals’ perceived ability to implement the new authorities, the levels of support they received, the effectiveness, and any additional authorities they desire. This study provides an opportunity to analyze the early efforts of a country with a very centralized educational system to implement decentralization efforts. A total of 173 Tatweer school principals completed an online survey, and findings suggest these Saudi principals perceived a limited ability to implement the authorities, low to moderate support, and only slight agreement that the authorities would achieve desired outcomes. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the principals’ perceived ability to implement administrative authorities, perceived support in implementing technical authorities, and years of experience predicted their beliefs about the effectiveness of the authorities.

Vol 13, No 1 (2018): Tracking Myself: African American High School Students Talk About the Effects of Curricular Differentiation

Research on the merit of school tracking policies has long been at the center of heated educational debate. Unfortunately, while the trend in studies looking at tracking in schools has continued, the student perspective has been underutilized in much of this previous research. Recently, however, there has been a surge in research that focuses on the benefits of student-centered research. This research recognizes the legitimacy of student perspectives in reform efforts. This article focuses on the student perspectives in a qualitative project with seven black students to understand the insights and contributions they have for school leaders. Findings revealed that students contribute nuanced perspectives on complex educational reform issues, such as tracking, and provide powerful insights that should be considered in school reform conversations. 


Vol 12, No 8 (2017): Gender Differences in Participatory Leadership: An Examination of Principals’ Time Spent Working with Others

The purpose of this study was to examine whether female principals have a more participatory style compared to their male counterparts by examining principals’ daily time allocation patterns. The study analyzed data from End of Day (EOD) survey logs from principals in an urban school district in the United States. Results from hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that female principals, when compared to male principals, spent a higher proportion of their time working with others in planning/setting goals. At the same time, there were no differences in how principals allocated their total time working alone or working with others and their time distribution in other leadership domains. The findings suggest that gender differences in leadership style depend on specific activity domains and that there are significant differences in the key domain of strategic planning. 

Vol 12, No 7 (2017): Educational Knowledge Brokerage and Mobilization: The Marshall Memo Case

The importance of intermediation between communities primarily engaged in research production and those primarily engaged in practice is increasingly acknowledged, yet our understanding of the nature and influence of this work in education remains limited. Accordingly, this study utilizes case study methodology and aspires to understand the activities and signature product (the Marshall Memo) of a particularly influential mediator of current educational research, news, and ideas: Mr. Kim Marshall. The article also examines the memo’s meaning to subscribing educators. Data analyses suggest subscribers greatly appreciate several aspects of the memo, which was found to draw from a wide range of source material that varies in terms of its research centredness and its practical implications. 

Vol 12, No 6 (2017): Caught on Camera: Special Education Classrooms and Video Surveillance

In Texas, state policy anticipates that installing video cameras in special education classrooms will decrease student abuse inflicted by teachers. Lawmakers assume that collecting video footage will prevent teachers from engaging in malicious actions and prosecute those who choose to harm children. At the request of a parent, Section 29.022 of the Texas Education Code (2015) will protect students who are unable to speak for themselves from bullying and abuse by installing video surveillance cameras in special education classrooms. The purpose of this article is to describe the law in Texas, the impact of the bill on classrooms, to raise questions about the implementation of the law, and to provide recommendations for school administrators.

Vol 12, No 5 (2017): An Analysis of Principals’ Perceptions of the Primary Teaching Evaluation System Used in Eight U.S. States

This research examines how public school principals in eight U.S. states perceive their teacher evaluation systems, which are based on Charlotte Danielson’s Framework for Teaching (FfT). States were selected to represent high, middle, and low scorers in the annual Education Week “Quality Counts” report (Education Week, 2016). A total of 1,142 out of over 8,100 working principals in the eight states responded to an online survey, yielding a response rate of over 14 percent. Most principals were somewhat satisfied with FfT but found implementing the system too cumbersome. Responses suggested an average of two changes to FfT desired by each principal; few wanted to keep their FfT as is. Targets for improvement included overhauling software used to enter teacher evaluations; eliminating student growth goals and student test scores (VAMs) as part of evaluations; reducing the time and paperwork required; and wanting more training for administrators and teachers on the use of FfT. Some states’ principals wanted to return control over teacher evaluation systems to local school districts. Most respondents agreed that their version of FfT has improved their school’s instructional program, and they prefer the new instrument over their previous evaluation instrument. 

Vol 12, No 4 (2017): Building Productive Relationships: District Leaders’ Advice to Researchers

Expectationsfortheroleofresearchineducationalimprovementarehigh. Meeting these expectations requires productive relationships between researchers and practitioners. Few studies, however, have systematically explored the ways researchers can build stronger, more productive relationships with practitioners. This study seeks to identify such strategies by examining district leaders’ views of how researchers might work with practitioners in more effective, beneficial, and collaborative ways. Through an analysis of 147 interviews with 80 district leaders in three urban school districts in the United States, we identify several key pieces of advice highlighted by district leaders for researchers. For researchers, these findings reveal potential strategies for shaping the design, conduct, and communication of their research in order to ensure its usefulness for practitioners. 

Vol 12, No 3 (2017): School Policy and Transgender Identity Expression: A Study of School Administrators’ Experiences

School administrators are charged with establishing and enforcing school policies that provide safe and equitable learning environments for all students while adhering to state and federal laws as well as adopted school board policies. This qualitative research focuses on school administrators’ experiences with transgender students’ identity expression as it relates to school policies and student body experiences of transgender inclusion. Implications for district and building policy are also discussed. 

Vol 12, No 2 (2017): Principal Leadership and Reading Specialist Role Understanding in the Era of Test-Based Accountability Policies.

This study investigates how the role of the reading specialist (RS) is defined and communicated by principals, and examines to what degree a common understand- ing of this role exists among teachers, building administrators and reading specialists. The principal’s responsibility in defining and communicating role, and the effect these efforts have on job satisfaction and specialists’ perceived effectiveness is also studied. Eight elementary schools in the western part of New York State (USA) are studied. Based on interviews with principals and reading specialists and surveys completed by principals, reading specialists, and teachers, the following themes emerge: a) Principal leadership was essential in defining the RS role; b) A clearly defined RS role was asso- ciated with greater RS satisfaction and perceptions of effectiveness as well as greater teacher compliance; c) Greater teacher compliance with a school’s literacy program did not affect beliefs about the proper role of RSs; d) Lack of a clearly defined role in a school was associated with role conflict and role ambiguity for reading specialists; e) Reading specialists, even without coaching responsibilities, served as a resource to teachers, although no time was allocated in their schedule to do so; f) Reading special- ists faced challenges due to increased accountability and assessment demands affected by policy, demographics, and accountability requirements. It is concluded that princi- pals must assume responsibility for defining and communicating the reading specialist role within their schools to strengthen literacy programming. 

Vol 12, No 1 (2017): Developing Leadership Capacity in Others: An Examination of High School Principals’ Personal Capacities for Fostering Leadership

In this multisite case study, we examine the personal capacities of six high school principals who have developed the leadership capacities of other leaders in their respective schools. Participants were purposefully selected by two teams of researchers in two states of the United States, one on the east coast and one on the west coast, who engaged their professional networks of current and former educational leaders to obtain recommendations of high school principals known for developing the leadership capacities of formal and informal leaders in their schools. The findings indicate that the principals possessed a strong commitment to developing leadership capacity, that they understood leadership development as a process, and that they tolerated risk. This study adds to the rapidly growing corpus of literature focused on distributed leadership; it does so by illustrating the complexities of developing leadership capacity in attempts to increase organizational leadership capacity, and by highlighting the relevant characteristics of principals who have intentionally sought to do so.


Vol 11, No 11 (2016): An Analysis of the 2013 Program Evaluation Proposals for the School Leadership Preparation Program

This article presents a content analysis of the 2013 School Leadership Program (SLP) grants. SLP projects provide a unique opportunity for participants in the field to explore innovative leadership preparation and development and their impact on program participants, schools, school districts, and students. The article begins with an overview of the SLP, the changing field of leadership preparation, and current research in the field. Findings then reveal a range of evaluation tools, methods, and data, the presence of myriad evaluators participating in the projects, and little focus on external dissemination of program evaluation methods beyond the scope of the projects. Suggestions for research to extend the field are provided. 

Vol 11, No 10 (2016): Educational Leadership and Comprehensive Reform for Improving Equity and Access for All

Disparities in college access for underrepresented urban students are one of the most urgent educational problems of America’s education system. In response to growing national concern, this longitudinal study investigated how school leaders worked collaboratively with key stakeholders to implement research-supported student services in order to improve college access for underrepresented urban students. The quantitative investigation showed that when educational leaders and key stakeholders worked collaboratively to deliver comprehensive student services, urban students in a high-poverty school district experienced measurable benefits in terms of their college enrolment. This study may be of particular value to policymakers, school leaders, and educators concerned with the low college access rates of students in urban schools, as well as to those who are seeking to understand what works better to prepare urban students for post-secondary education. 

Vol 11, No 9 (2016): Influential Spheres: Examining Actors’ Perceptions of Education Governance

Many layers of education governance press upon U.S. schools, so we separated state actors into those internal to and those external to the system. In the process, we unpacked the traditional state–local dichotomy. Using interview data (n = 45) from six case-study states, we analyzed local leaders’, state-internal actors’, and state-external players’ perceptions of implementation flexibility and hindrances across several policy areas. We observed how interviewees’ spheres of influence linked to which policy areas they viewed as salient or not, and their relative emphases on who and what within state education systems contributed to implementation flexibility and/or hindrances, and how these factors played out. We found important differences by sphere: the local sphere produced the most coherent findings, and state-internal was least coherent. We discuss implications for education governance research, applications for practitioners and policymakers, and a methodological contribution. 

Vol 11, No 8 (2016): The Impacts of Retention, Expenditures, and Class Size on Primary School Completion in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-National Analysis

Education in Sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly viewed as a means of emancipation and a transformative project for social mobility. Developing nations have pursued policies such as universal or free primary education to increase access to education and improve student outcomes. In this study, direct and indirect precursors to primary school completion in Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed using national cross-sectional data collected by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Results show that imbalanced pupil-teacher ratios and high student retention rates are negatively associated with primary school completion. Additionally, the positive relationship between expenditure increase and completion rates is mediated by a negative contribution to pupil-teacher ratios. Results are compared with existing production function research on educational inputs and student success. 

Vol 11, No 7 (2016): Making Sense, Making Do: Local District Implementation of a New State Induction Policy

Connecticut’s Teacher Education and Mentoring (TEAM) program is in its early stages of implementation. This study examined how local school districts implemented TEAM and identified factors that affected implementation. It was based on interviews with twenty-two participants at the state, district, and local school levels. The intentions of the program designers at the state level were compared to district- and school-level understandings of the program’s intentions and how those understandings influenced implementation. Additionally, factors affecting local understanding and implementation of the new program were described. The findings of this study suggest that there was close alignment of understanding between the state and local implementers on the key provisions of the program related to its role as a professional development tool. The data reveal tacit rather than explicit understanding at the local level of the program’s intention to improve student achievement. Variations in understanding can be attributed to other factors, including contextual, structural, cognitive, and affective elements. 

Vol 11, No 6 (2016): What They Think About How They’re Evaluated: Perspectives of New York State Physical Educators on Teacher Evaluation Policy

While research on high stakes testing continues to expand, little is known about how the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers is affecting physical education (PE). A proportionate, stratified random sample of physical educators in New York State was drawn (n=489) to survey them about their district’s practices and their attitudes about the State’s new teacher evaluation policy. Results indicated that 38 percent of respondents reported their district used students’ written PE test results for teacher evaluation purposes, while 27 percent indicated that their district used student fitness tests for teacher evaluation purposes. Eighteen percent of respondents reported that their district used state-mandated English Language Arts (ELA) and mathematics test scores in calculating physical educators’ effectiveness ranks. While few reported using performance-based measures, 94 percent of respondents indicated these as the preferred means of assessment in PE. Eighty-three percent of respondents predicted that the new teacher evaluation system would not improve PE. 

Vol 11, No 5 (2016): Paying for School Choice: Availability Differences among Local Education Markets

In the context of school zone discontinuity based on parents’ educational level, housing price, and household income, empowering parents to choose children’s schools with their own hands has the potential to improve overall access to education by weakening geographical advantages or disadvantages and opening up invisible boundaries between communities. Though recent school choice proposals seem aligned with access to education, little research has paid attention to potential access to and actual utilization of the federal government-initiated choice program in competitive markets. This paper, by representing the geographic distribution of choice availability in a segregated metropolitan area, explores whether or not the markets for the public school choice provision under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 are ready to serve students at chronically underperforming schools. This study finds that the public school choice provision under the NCLB constructs unequal choice settings between school districts. 

Vol 11, No 4 (2016): School Reform: America’s Winchester Mystery House

This quantitative study examines the correlation between international student achievement test outcomes and national competitiveness rankings. Student achievement data are derived from a variation-adjusted, common-scale metric data set for 74 countries that have participated in any of the international mathematics and science achievement tests since 1964. National competitiveness data are taken from the 2014–15 Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) published by the World Economic Forum. A Spearman’s rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between student performance on international achievement tests and the competitiveness of nations. For all nations, there was a moderate positive correlation between student performance on international achievement tests and the competitiveness of a nation, rs(98)=0.688, p<0.001. However, this relationship disappeared among the 18 most competitive nations, the cohort to which the United States belongs. The relationship also disappeared among the 18 nations with the highest achievement scores on international tests. Student performance on international assessments appears to have no relationship to the competitiveness of the United States. This study has implications for legislators and public education leaders who want to maximize the return on investments in education. Education dollars and reform initiatives should be diverted toward addressing poverty, funding schools equitably, alleviating social stress and violence, and supporting young families and students of immigrant families.

Vol 11, No 3 (2016): Enabling School Structures, Trust, and Collective Efficacy in Private International Schools

This article explores the role of enabling school structures, collegial trust, and collective efficacy in 15 pre-Kindergarten to 12th grade international, private schools in South and Central America and Mexico. While most of these schools shared an “American” curriculum the local culture and school norms affected the climate of the school and the likelihood of the development of a professional learning community (PLC) in each school and country accordingly. As enabling school structures, trust in the principal, collegial trust, and collective efficacy were more established, the PLC was more likely to be developed based upon teacher perceptions in this quantitative study.

Vol 11, No 2 (2016): Are Leaders Influenced by Advocates in Decisions on Special Education Eligibility?

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the opinions of private practitioners and educational advocates on instructional leaders’ decisionmaking processes when making a recommendation for special education eligibility. School-based administrators (n = 56) with varying years of experience as special education administrators participated in this study. Using data from a series of vignettes and from structured interviews, results indicated that private practitioners and educational advocates significantly influence administrators’ recommendations for special education eligibility.

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