Measures of Socio-Economic Status in Educational Research: The Canadian Context


  • Sarah L Patten OISE at University of Toronto



Socio-economic status, Student achievement, Hierarchical linear modelling, Canadian context


This study aims to recommend and test a conceptual model for socio-economic status (SES) and variables to measure it that are available to researchers in Canada and applicable in other countries. Recommendations for quantitative researchers are presented to address issues that arise with including SES in analyses. The study analyzed data linking student achievement in mathematics and literacy to both economic and social factors. Results from hierarchical linear modelling showed that the use of intersecting variables was better served to answer research questions than any individual SES measure or a composite measure. Using SES measures at the school and neighbourhood level is also recommended.

Author Biography

Sarah L Patten, OISE at University of Toronto

Sarah Patten is a sessional lecturer at OISE and is also a full time secondary school teacher in Ontario.




How to Cite

Patten, S. L. (2019). Measures of Socio-Economic Status in Educational Research: The Canadian Context. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 14(3).

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