Una Faccia, Una Razza: Similarities, Differences, and Parallels in Adult Education Policy Development in Greece and Italy





There is little evidence about the origin of the phrase una faccia, una razza (one face, one race). However, its use signifies numerous shared elements in the cultures of Italy and Greece. In both countries, adult education emerged within the critical paradigm whereas vocationalism is currently the leading force of adult education policy development. The purpose of this article is to discuss the paths of adult education policy evolution over the last 40 years in both countries. Acknowledging Europeanization, neoliberalism, and vocationalism as the forces of policy change, the article provides a detailed critical review, a synthesis, and a proposal about future steps in adult education policy.


Il existe peu d’indices sur l’origine de l'expression una faccia, una razza (un visage, une race). Cependant, son utilisation souligne de nombreux éléments communs aux cultures de l'Italie et de la Grèce. Dans ces deux pays, l’éducation des adultes a vu le jour dans le cadre du paradigme critique, alors qu’un souci de formation professionnelle est actuellement la force motrice du développement d’une politique pour l’éducation des adultes. L’objectif de cet article est de discuter la manière dont la politique pour l’éducation des adultes a évolué dans les deux pays au cours des 40 dernières années. Reconnaissant que l’européanisation, le néolibéralisme et un souci de formation professionnelle sont les forces actuelles du changement politique, l’article fournit un examen critique détaillé, une synthèse, et une proposition sur ce que pourraient être les étapes futures d’une politique pour l’éducation des adultes.

Keywords / Mots clés :  adult education, policy development, vocationalism, neoliberalism, collaborative interpretive inquiry / éducation des adultes, élaboration de politiques, souci de formation professionnelle, néolibéralisme, enquête interprétative collaborative


Author Biographies

George Koulaouzides, Hellenic Open University

George A. Koulaouzides, studied mathematics and adult education. He is Assistant Professor at the Hellenic Open University and Visiting Scholar at the Democritus University of Thrace. His research interests are transformative learning, critical reflection, and their inclusion in adult education policy, as well as educational biography. He has translated in Greek six books on adult education, transformative learning, and research methods. His has published extensively in journals, edited volumes, and conference proceedings. In 2019 he was inducted in the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame becoming the first Greek adult education scholar and practitioner receiving this notable distinction. In 2021, he founded the Biographical Learning and Transformative Education Laboratory at the Hellenic Open University. He serves at the Executive Board of the European Association for the Education of Adults.

Alessandra Romano , University of Siena

Alessandra Romano is Associate Professor at the Department of Social, Political and Cognitive Sciences of the University of Siena. In both teaching and research, her focus is in generating conditions for adults, groups, and teams to learn, grow and develop skilful means for collaborative inquiry and organizational change. She has a particular interest in research on transformative learning, experience-based methods, and diversity management. She is member of the Editorial Board of the Journal "Educational Reflective Practices". She is also a member of the Board of the Transformative Listening Project. Dr Romano is the Coordinator of the Certification Program for teachers for special education of University of Siena. 




How to Cite

Koulaouzides, G., & Romano, A. (2022). Una Faccia, Una Razza: Similarities, Differences, and Parallels in Adult Education Policy Development in Greece and Italy. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 18(1), 16 pp. https://doi.org/10.22230/ijepl.2022v18n1a1203



Policy and Leadership