Dynamic Interplay between Modes of Regulation During Motivationally Challenging Episodes in Collaboration

Main Article Content

Aishah Bakhtiar
Allyson Hadwin


The cognitive and social demands of collaboration can raise significant motivation challenges. Task progression relies on team members strategically taking control of the problems and adapting accordingly. Theory indicates that productive collaboration involves groups using three modes of regulation: self-regulation, co-regulation, and socially shared regulation. Despite research demonstrating the occurrence of all three modes in collaboration, it is unclear how these modes interact and how co-regulation supports the emergence of self- and shared-regulation of motivation. The study aimed to examine the role co-regulation played in dynamically stimulating the emergence of self- and shared-regulation of motivation. A cross-case comparison was conducted between two groups who experienced high levels of motivation challenges but achieved contrasting perceptions of the overall team learning productivity. During analysis, groups’ dynamic regulatory processes within the online environment were visually represented using a tool called the Chronologically-ordered Representation for Tool-Related Activity (CORDTRA). Findings demonstrate that co-regulation of motivation may afford and thwart the emergence of self- and shared-regulation, and these processes interacted with the group’s situational challenges and the regulatory skills group members possessed. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that groups' motivation regulation should (a) match the demands of the challenges at hand, (b) be positively supported by group members through co-regulation, and (b) involve a more varied strategic responses so that the group may continue to learn and co-construct knowledge effectively as a team.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bakhtiar, A., & Hadwin, A. (2020). Dynamic Interplay between Modes of Regulation During Motivationally Challenging Episodes in Collaboration. Frontline Learning Research, 8(2), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v8i2.561


Bakhtiar, A. (2019). Regulating self, other’s, and group motivation in online collaboration (Doctoral thesis, University of Victoria, Canada). Retrieved from https://dspace.library.uvic.ca/handle/1828/11354.

Bakhtiar, A., Hadwin, A.F., & Järvenoja, H. (2018). Contextual differences of students’ motivation regulation strategies in a collaborative project. Paper presented at the bi-annual International Conference on Motivation, Aarhus, Denmark.

Bakhtiar, A., Webster, E. A., & Hadwin, A. F. (2018). Regulation and socio-emotional interactions in a positive and a negative group climate. Metacognition and Learning, 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-017-9178-x

Barron, B. (2003). When Smart Groups Fail. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(3), 307–359. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327809JLS1203_1

Belland, B. R., Kim, C., & Hannafin, M. J. (2013). A framework for designing scaffolds that improve motivation and cognition. Educational Psychologist, 48(4), 243-270. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2013.838920

Blumenfeld, P. C., Kempler, T. M., & Krajcik, J. S. (2006). Motivation and cognitive engagement in learning environments. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of: The learning sciences (pp. 475-488). New York, US: Cambridge University Press.

DiDonato, N. C. (2013). Effective self-and co-regulation in collaborative learning groups: An analysis of how students regulate problem solving of authentic interdisciplinary tasks. Instructional science, 41(1), 25-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-012-9206-9

Hadwin, A. F., Bakhtiar, A., & Miller, M. (2018). Challenges in online collaboration: effects of scripting shared task perceptions. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 13(3), 301-329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-018-9279-9

Hadwin, A. F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2011). Self-regulated, co-regulated, and socially shared regulation of learning. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 65-84). New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203839010

Hadwin, A. F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2018). Self-regulation, co-regulation and shared regulation in collaborative learning environments. In D. Schunk & J. Greene (Eds.). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance 2nd edition (pp. 83-106). New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315697048

Hadwin, A. F., & Winne, P. H. (2012). Promoting learning skills in undergraduate students. Enhancing the quality of learning: Dispositions, instruction, and mental structures, 201-227. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139048224.013

Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Chernobilsky, E., & Jordan, R. (2008). Understanding collaborative learning processes in new learning environments. Instructional Science, 36(5-6), 409-430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-008-9063-8

Iiskala, T., Vauras, M., Lehtinen, E., & Salonen, P. (2011). Socially shared metacognition of dyads of pupils in collaborative mathematical problem-solving processes. Learning and Instruction, 21(3), 379-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.05.002

Isohätälä, J., Järvenoja, H., & Järvelä, S. (2017). Socially shared regulation of learning and participation in social interaction in collaborative learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 81, 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.10.006

Järvelä, S., & Hadwin, A. F. (2013). Educational psychologist new frontiers: Regulating learning in CSCL. Educational Psychologist, 48(1), 25–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2012.748006

Järvelä, S., Järvenoja, H., & Veermans, M. (2008). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in socially shared learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 47(2), 122–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2007.11.012

Järvelä, S., Kirschner, P. A., Panadero, E., Malmberg, J., Phielix, C., Jaspers, J., ... & Järvenoja, H. (2015). Enhancing socially shared regulation in collaborative learning groups: designing for CSCL regulation tools. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(1), 125-142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9358-1

Järvelä, S., Malmberg, J., & Koivuniemi, M. (2016). Recognizing socially shared regulation by using the temporal sequences of online chat and logs in CSCL. Learning and Instruction, 42, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.10.006

Järvelä, S., Volet, S., & Järvenoja, H. (2010). Research on motivation in collaborative learning: Moving beyond the cognitive-situative divide and combining individual and social processes. Educational Psychologist, 45(1), 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903433539

Järvenoja, H., Järvelä, S., & Malmberg, J. (2015). Understanding regulated learning in situative and contextual frameworks. Educational Psychologist, 50(3), 204–219. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2015.1075400

Järvenoja, H., Järvelä, S., & Malmberg, J. (2017). Supporting groups’ emotion and motivation regulation during collaborative learning. Learning and Instruction (online). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.11.004

Järvenoja, H., Järvelä, S., Törmänen, T., Näykki, P., Malmberg, J., Kurki, K., ... & Isohätälä, J. (2018). Capturing Motivation and Emotion Regulation during a Learning Process. Frontline Learning Research, 6(3), 85-104. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v6i3.369

Järvenoja, H., Näykki, P., & Törmänen, T. (2019). Emotional regulation in collaborative learning: when do higher education students activate group level regulation in the face of challenges?. Studies in Higher Education, 44(10), 1747-1757. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1665318

Järvenoja, H., Volet, S., & Järvelä, S. (2013). Regulation of emotions in socially challenging learning situations: An instrument to measure the adaptive and social nature of the regulation process. Educational Psychology, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2012.742334

Malmberg, J., Järvelä, S., Järvenoja, H., & Panadero, E. (2015). Promoting socially shared regulation of learning in CSCL: Progress of socially shared regulation among high- and low-performing groups. Computers in Human Behaviour, 52, 562–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.082

McCaslin, M., & Hickey, D. T. (2001). Educational psychology, social constructivism, and educational practice: A case of emergent identity. Educational psychologist, 36(2), 133-140. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3602_8

McCaslin, M., & Vriesema, C. C. (2018). Co-Regulation: a model for classroom research inVygotskianian perspective. In G. A. D. Liem, & D. M. McInerney, (Eds.). Big Theories Revisited 2 (pp. 154-180). Charlotte, NC: IAP.

McHugh M. L. (2012). Interrater reliability: The kappa statistic. Biochemia medica, 22(3), 276-82. https://doi.org/10.11613/bm.2012.031

Näykki, P., Isohätälä, J., Järvelä, S., Pöysä-Tarhonen, J., & Häkkinen, P. (2017). Facilitating socio-cognitive and socio-emotional monitoring in collaborative learning with a regulation macro script–an exploratory study. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 12(3), 251-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-017-9259-5

Panadero, E., & Järvelä, S. (2015). Socially shared regulation of learning: A review. European Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000226

Panadero, E., Kirschner, P. A., Järvelä, S., Malmberg, J., & Jarvenoja, H. (2015). How individual self-regulation affects group regulation and performance: A shared regulation intervention. Small Group Research, 46(4), 431–454. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496415591219

Pino-Pasternak, D., Whitebread, D., & Neale, D. (2018). The role of regulatory, social, and dialogic dynamics on young children’s productive collaboration in group problem solving. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 162, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1002/cad.20262

Puntambekar, S., Erkens, G., & Hmelo-Silver, C. (Eds.). (2011). Analyzing interactions in CSCL: Methods, approaches and issues. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7710-6

Rogat, T. K., & Adams-Wiggins, K. R. (2015). Interrelation between regulatory and socioemotional processes within collaborative groups characterized by facilitative and directive other-regulation. Computers in Human Behaviour, 52, 589–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.026

Rogat, T. K., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2011). Socially shared regulation in collaborative groups: An analysis of the interplay between quality of social regulation and group processes. Cognition and Instruction, 29(4), 375–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/07370008.2011.607930

Rogat, T. K., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & DiDonato, N. (2013). Motivation in collaborative groups. In C. Hmelo-Silver, C. Chinn, C. Chan, & A. O’Donnell (Eds.), International Handbook of Collaborative Learning (pp. 250–267). New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203837290

Ruiz Ulloa, B. C., & Adams, S. G. (2004). Attitude toward teamwork and effective teaming. Team Performance Management, 10(7/8), 145-151. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590410569869

Schoor, C., & Bannert, M. (2012). Exploring regulatory processes during a computer-supported collaborative learning task using process mining. Computers in Human Behaviour, 28(4), 1321–1331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.02.016

Seale, C., & Silverman, D. (1997). Ensuring rigour in qualitative research. The European Journal of Public Health, 7(4), 379-384. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/7.4.379

Sobocinski, M., Malmberg, J., & Järvelä, S. (2017). Exploring temporal sequences of regulatory phases and associated interactions in low- and high-challenge collaborative learning sessions. Metacognition and Learning, 12(2), 275–294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-016-9167-5

Tucker, R., & Abbasi, N. (2016). Bad attitudes: why design students dislike teamwork. Journal of Learning Design, 9(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.5204/jld.v9i1.227

Ucan, S., & Webb, M. (2015). Social regulation of learning during collaborative inquiry learning in science: How does it emerge and what are its functions?. International Journal of Science Education, 37(15), 2503-2532. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2015.1083634

Van Den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments team learning beliefs and behaviours. Small Group Research, 37(5), 490–521. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496406292938

Volet, S., & Vauras, M. (2013). Interpersonal regulation of learning and motivation: methodological advances. New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203117736

Wijga, M., Endedijk, M. D., & Veldkamp, B. P. (2019). Social regulation at the workplace: Different modes of regulation and variation in quality. In A. Bakhtiar and M. Wijga (Organisers), Self-, co-, and shared Regulation: What do they look like in different contexts? Why do they matter? Symposium conducted at the bi-annual meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Aachen, Germany.

Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated engagement in learning. In D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice (pp. 277-304). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410602350

Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (2008). The weave of motivation and self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research and applications (pp. 298-314). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203831076

Winne, P. H., & Marx, R. W. (1989). A cognitive-processing analysis of motivation within classroom tasks. Research on Motivation in Education, 3, 223-257.

Wosnitza, M., & Volet, S. (2014). Trajectories of change in university students’ general views of group work following one single group assignment: significance of instructional context and multidimensional aspects of experience. European Journal of Educational Psychology, 29, 101–115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-013-0189-y

Xu, J., & Du, J. (2013). Regulation of motivation: Students’ motivation management in online collaborative groupwork. Teachers College Record, 115(10), 1–16.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd edition). California, LA: Sage Publication.