What determines whether teachers enhance self-regulated learning? Predicting teachers’ reported promotion of self-regulated learning by teacher beliefs, knowledge, and self-efficacy

Main Article Content

Charlotte Dignath


In this study, the predictive value of three aspects of teacher beliefs for teachers’ promotion of self-regulated learning (SRL) is modelled by means of structural equation modelling: teacher beliefs on (1) instructing SRL, (2) regarding their own self-efficacy towards the promotion of SRL, and (3) teachers’ epistemological beliefs regarding learning. 173 primary school teachers participated in the study. Path analysis revealed that teachers’ beliefs on instructing SRL and self-efficacy beliefs regarding the promotion of SRL were predicting teachers’ promotion of SRL most positively. The results offer new insights into teacher beliefs and how they account for teacher behavior regarding the promotion of SRL. This study is particularly innovative as it is the first study in the field of teachers and SRL to investigate teacher beliefs and teacher self-efficacy as potential determinants of teachers’ promotion of SRL in the classroom. These results can serve to construct a model of teachers’ promotion of SRL as well as provide ideas on how to help teachers supporting SRL. This study is frontline as to my understanding no other research has been published on teachers’ beliefs, in particular self-efficacy beliefs towards promoting SRL, and how these are related to teachers’ promotion of SRL. Most research on teachers and SRL has so far focused on training teachers, but no model of teachers’ professional competence in this area exists yet.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dignath, C. (2017). What determines whether teachers enhance self-regulated learning? Predicting teachers’ reported promotion of self-regulated learning by teacher beliefs, knowledge, and self-efficacy. Frontline Learning Research, 4(5), 83–105. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v4i5.247


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191.
Bandura (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Baumert, J. & Kunter, M. (2013). The COACTIV model of teachers’ professional competence. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers (pp. 25-48). New York: Springer US.
Baumert, J. & Kunter, M. (2006). Stichwort: Professionelle Kompetenz von Lehrkräften [Keyword: Professional competence of teachers. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 9, 469-520.
Bell, P. D. (2006). Can factors related to self-regulated learning and epistemological beliefs predict learning achievement in undergraduate asynchronous Web-based courses? Perspectives in Health Information Management/AHIMA, American Health Information Management Association, 3, 7.
Bendixen, L. D. & Hartley, K. (2003). Successful learning with hypermedia: The role of epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28, 15-30.
Bolhuis, S. & Voeten, M. J. M. (2001). Toward self-directed learning in secondary schools: what do teachers do? Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 837–855.
Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C. & Day, J. D. (1981). Learning to learn: On training students to learn from texts. Educational Researcher, 10, 14-21.
Canrinus, E. T., Helms-Lorenz, M., Beijaard, D., Buitink, J. & Hofman, A. (2012). Self-efficacy, job satisfaction, motivation and commitment: Exploring the relationships between indicators of teachers’ professional identity. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27, 115-132.
Chan, W. Y., Lau, S., Nie, Y., Lim, S. & Hogan, D. (2008). Organizational and personal predictors of teacher commitment: The mediating role of teacher efficacy and identification with school. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 597–630.
Chatzistamatiou, M., Dermitzaki, I. & Bagiatis, V. (2014). Self-regulatory teaching in mathematics: relations to teachers' motivation, affect and professional commitment. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 29, 295-310.
De Kock, A., Sleegers, P. & Voeten, M. J. M. (2005). New learning and choices of secondary school teachers when arranging learning environments. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 799–816.
Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Dickhäuser, O. & Büttner, G. (2013). Assessing how teachers enhance self-regulated learning - a multi-perspective approach. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, Special Issue on Self-Regulated Learning, 21, 338-358.
Dignath-van Ewijk, C. & Van der Werf, G. (2012). What teachers think about self-regulated learning: An investigation of teacher beliefs about enhancing students' self-regulation and how they predict teacher behavior. Education Research International, doi:10.1155/2012/741713.
Dignath, C. (2009). Different aspects of the promotion of self-regulated learning: a multi-method investigation on the instruction of self-regulated learning at primary and secondary school. Dissertation Universität Frankfurt.
Dignath, C., Büttner, G. & Langfeldt, H.-P. (2008). How can primary school students acquire self-regulated learning most efficiently? A meta-analysis on interventions that aim at fostering self-regulation. Educational Research Review, 3, 101-129.
Doornik, J. A. & Hansen, H. (2008). An Omnibus Test for Univariate and Multivariate Normality. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 70, Supplement, 927-939.
Dweck, C. S. & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256.
Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: the final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 25–39.
Fenstermacher, G. D. (1994). The knower and the known: The nature of knowledge in research on teaching. Review of Research in Education, 20, 3-56.
Fives, H. (2003, April). What is teacher efficacy and how does it relate to teachers’ knowledge? A theoretical review. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Chicago.
Ghaith, G. & Yaghi, H. (1997). Relationships among experience, teacher efficacy, and attitudes towards the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, 451-458.
Guo, Y., Piasta, S. B., Justice, L. M. & Kaderavek, J. M. (2010). Relations among preschool teachers’ self-efficacy, classroom quality, and children’s language and literacy gains. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1094-1103.
Guskey, T. R. (1988). Teacher efficacy, self-concept, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 63-69.
Hamman, D., Berthelot, J., Saia, J. & Crowley, E. (2000). Teachers' coaching of learning and its relation to students' strategic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 342.
Hattie, J. (2013). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge.
Hattie, J., Biggs, J. & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 99-136.
Hofer, B. K. (2000). Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 378-405.
Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88-140.
Holzberger, D., Philipp, A. & Kunter, M. (2013). How teachers’ self-efficacy is related to instructional quality: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 774-786.
Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implication of research on teacher belief. Educational Psychologist, 27, 65–90.
Klassen, R. M., Tze, V. M., Betts, S. M. & Gordon, K. A. (2011). Teacher efficacy research 1998–2009: signs of progress or unfulfilled promise?. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 21-43.
Kramarski, B., Desoete, A., Bannert, M., Narciss, S. & Perry, N. (2013). New perspectives on integrating self-regulated learning at school. Education Research International, 2013, Article ID 498214.
Kramarski, B. &. Michalsky, T. (2009). Investigating preservice teachers’ professional growth in self-regulated learning environments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 161–175.
Kunter, M. (2013). Motivation as an aspect of professional competence: Research findings on teacher enthusiasm. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers (pp. 273-289). New York: Springer US.
Kunter, M., Tsai, Y. M., Klusmann, U., Brunner, M., Krauss, S. & Baumert, J. (2008). Enjoying teaching: Enthusiasm and instructional behaviors of secondary school mathematics teachers. Learning and Instruction, 18, 468-482.
Lombaerts, K., Engels, N. & Athanasou, J. A. (2007). Development and validation of the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers. Perspectives in Education, 25, 29–47.
Lombaerts, K., Engels, N., Van Braak, J. & Athanasou, J. A. (2009). Development of the Self-Regulated Learning Teacher Belief Scale. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1, 79-96.
Lonka, K., Joram, E. & Bryson, M. (1996). “Conceptions of learning and knowledge: does training make a difference?” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 240–260.
Moely, B. E., Hart, S. S., Leal, L., Santulli, K. A., Rao, N., Johnson, T. & Hamilton, L. B. (1992). The teacher's role in facilitating memory and study strategy development in the elementary school classroom. Child Development, 63, 653-672.
Moos, D. C., & Ringdal, A. (2012). Self-regulated learning in the classroom: A literature review on the teacher’s role. Education Research International, 2012, Article ID 423284.
Muis, K. R. (2007). The role of epistemic beliefs in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 42, 173-190.
Olafson, L. & Schraw, G. (2006). Teachers’ beliefs and practices within and across domains. International Journal of Educational Research, 45, 71-84.
Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62, 307–332.
Paris, S. G. & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational psychologist, 36, 89-101.
Perry, N. E., Hutchinson, L. & Thauberger, C. (2008). Talking about teaching self-regulated learning: scaffolding student teachers’ development and use of practices that promote self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 47, 97–108.
Perry, N. E., Phillips, L. & Dowler, J. (2004). Examining features of tasks and their potential to promote self-regulated learning. The Teachers College Record, 106, 1854-1878.
Perry, N. E. & VandeKamp, K. J. (2000). Creating classroom contexts that support young children's development of self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 821-843.
Perry, W. J. R. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Pieschl, S., Stahl, E. & Bromme, R. (2008). Epistemological beliefs and self-regulated learning with hypertext. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 17-37.
Pressley, M., Harris, K. R. & Marks, M. B. (1992). But good strategy instructors are constructivists!, Educational Psychology Review, 4, 3–31.
Ravindran, B., Greene, B. A. & DeBacker, T. K. (2005). Predicting preservice teachers’ cognitive engagement with goals and epistemological beliefs. The Journal of Educational Research, 98, 222-232.
Schiefele, U., Moschner, B. & Husstegge, R. (2002). Skalenhandbuch SMILE-Projekt. [Scale handbook of the SMILE project] Bielefeld: University of Bielefeld.
Schmitz, G. S. & Schwarzer, R. (2000). Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung von Lehrern: Längsschnittbefunde mit einem neuen Instrument. [Perceived self-efficacy of teachers: Longitudinal findings with a new instrument] Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 14, 12-25.
Schommer-Aikins, M. (2004). Explaining the epistemological belief system: Introducing the embedded systemic model and coordinated research approach. Educational Psychologist, 39, 19-29.
Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504.
Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J. & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139.
Schraw, G. & Olafson, L. (2003). Teachers' epistemological world views and educational practices. Journal of cognitive education and psychology, 3, 178-235.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15, 4-14.
Sinatra, G. M. & Kardash, C. M. (2004). Teacher candidates’ epistemological beliefs, dispositions, and views on teaching as persuasion. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 483-498.
Skaalvik, E. M. & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1059-1069.
Skaalvik, E. M. & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 611.
Sosu, E. M. & Gray, D. S. (2012). Investigating change in epistemic beliefs: An evaluation of the impact of student teachers’ beliefs on instructional preference and teaching competence. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 80-92.
Spruce, R. & Bol, L. (2014). Teacher beliefs, knowledge, and practice of self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 1-33.
Swars, S. L. (2005). Examining Perceptions of Mathematics Teaching Effectiveness among Elementary Preservice Teachers with Differing Levels of Mathematics Teacher Efficacy. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 139-147.
Tillema, H. H. (1995). Changing the professional knowledge and beliefs of teachers: a training study. Learning and Instruction, 5, 291–318.
Tschannen-Moran, M. & Johnson, D. (2011). Exploring literacy teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs: Potential sources at play. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 751-761.
Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.
Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W. & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248.
Vandevelde, S., Vandenbussche, L. & Van Keer, H. (2012). Stimulating self-regulated learning in primary education: Encouraging versus hampering factors for teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1562-1571.
Weinert, F. E. (2001). Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification. In Rychen, D. S. & Salganik., L. H. (Eds.), Defining and Selecting Key Competencies (pp. 45-65). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe.
Wertheim, C. & Leyser, Y. (2002). Efficacy beliefs, background variables, and differentiated instruction of Israeli prospective teachers. The Journal of Educational Research, 96, 54-63.
Wilson, N. S. & Bai, H. (2010). The relationships and impact of teachers’ metacognitive knowledge and pedagogical understandings of metacognition. Metacognition and Learning, 5, 269-288.
Wright, S. (1934). The method of path coefficients. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 5, 161-215.
Woolfolk, A. E. & Hoy, W. K. (1990). Prospective teachers’ sense of efficacy and beliefs about control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 81-91.
Yadav, A. & Koehler, M. (2007). The role of epistemological beliefs in preservice teachers’ interpretation of video cases of early-grade literacy instruction. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15, 335-361.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.