Main Article Content
Motivation is a core element of teachers’ professional competences and, therefore, of great importance to teaching and learning. Motivation might explain why teachers do or do not promote self-regulated learning (SRL). Drawing on expectancy-value theory (EVT), this study used a person-centred approach to investigate to what extent multiple motivational aspects (self-efficacy; intrinsic interest, extrinsic utility, and attainment value; opportunity and effort costs) shape teachers’ motivational profiles. It examined the extent to which those profiles differ regarding experience in promoting SRL, the implicit theory of SRL, and the promotion of SRL. The study sample consisted of N = 280 in-service teachers (51.8% women; Mage = 44.34, SD = 10.82). Three profiles were identified: The high costs profile (profile 1, 30.8% of teachers), the moderate profile (profile 2, 24.4% of teachers), and the high success expectations and task values profile (profile 3, 44.8% of teachers). Further analyses revealed significant differences between these profiles concerning experience in promoting SRL, implicit theory of SRL, and the promotion of SRL, with Profile 1 showing the lowest values and Profile 3 the highest for each factor. The study found that high expectations are associated with high values, and costs are low when expectations and values are high and vice versa. This is in line with the assumptions of EVT and is applicable to all three profiles. These results indicate a clear need to support teachers in promoting SRL, especially those with high perceived costs, to ensure costs do not override the other considerations in EVT. Overall, this study is ‘frontline’ because it highlights the relevance of motivation as an aspect of teachers’ professional competences in promoting SRL. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of combining EVT and SRL to provide a more nuanced picture of teachers’ motivation to promote SRL. It offers new insights that could influence the conceptualization of professional development programs for SRL.
FLR adopts the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Common License (BY-NC-ND). That is, Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors with, however, first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2014). Variable-specific entropy contribution. Mplus. https://www.statmodel.com/download/UnivariateEntropy.pdf
Azevedo, R., Taub, M., & Mudrick, N. V. (2018). Using multi-channel trace data to infer and foster self-regulated learning between humans and advanced learning technologies. In D. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (Vol. 2, pp. 254–270). Routledge.
Backfisch, I., Lachner, A., Hische, C., Loose, F., & Scheiter, K. (2020). Professional knowledge or motivation? Investigating the role of teachers’ expertise on the quality of technology-enhanced lesson plans. Learning and Instruction, 66, 101300. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2019.101300
Barr, S., & Askell-Williams, H. (2020). Changes in teachers’ epistemic cognition about self-regulated learning as they engaged in a researcher-facilitated professional learning community. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2), 187–212. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2019.1599098
Barron, K. E., & Hulleman, C. S. (2015). Expectancy-value-cost model of motivation. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (Second edition) (Vol. 8, pp. 503–509). Elsevier. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.26099-6
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230–258. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002005
Bühner, M. (2011). Einführung in die Test- und Fragebogenkonstruktion [Introduction to test and questionnaire construction]. Pearson Studium.
Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E., VanEpps, E. M., Pollack, J. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2013). Mindsets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139(3), 655–701. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029531
Carson, R. L., & Chase, M. A. (2009). An examination of physical education teacher motivation from a self-determination theoretical framework. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14(4), 335–353. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/17408980802301866
Cook, D. A., & Artino, A. R. (2016). Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories. Medical Education, 50(10), 997–1014. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13074
de Boer, H., Donker, A. S., Kostons, D. D. N. M., & van der Werf, G. P. C. (2018). Long-term effects of metacognitive strategy instruction on student academic performance: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 24, 98–115. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.03.002
De Corte, E., Verschaffel, L., & Masui, C. (2004). The CLIA-model: A framework for designing powerful learning environments for thinking and problem solving. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 19(4), 365–384. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03173216
De Smul, M., Heirweg, S., Devos, G., & Van Keer, H. (2019). School and teacher determinants underlying teachers’ implementation of self-regulated learning in primary education. Research Papers in Education, 34(6), 701–724. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2018.1536888
De Smul, M., Heirweg, S., Van Keer, H., Devos, G., & Vandevelde, S. (2018). How competent do teachers feel instructing self-regulated learning strategies? Development and validation of the teacher self-efficacy scale to implement self-regulated learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 214–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.01.001
Dent, A. L., & Koenka, A. C. (2016). The relation between self-regulated learning and academic achievement across childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 425–474. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9320-8
Dignath-van Ewijk, C. (2016). Which components of teacher competence determine whether teachers enhance self-regulated learning? Predicting teachers’ self-reported promotion of self-regulated learning by means of teacher beliefs, knowledge, and self-efficacy. Frontline Learning Research, 4(5), 83–105. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.14786/flr.v4i5.247
Dignath, C. (2021). For unto every one that hath shall be given: teachers’ competence profiles regarding the promotion of self-regulated learning moderate the effectiveness of short-term teacher training. Metacognition and Learning, 16(3), 555–594. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-021-09271-x
Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2018). Teachers’ direct and indirect promotion of self-regulated learning in primary and secondary school mathematics classes – insights from video-based classroom observations and teacher interviews. Metacognition Learning, 13(2), 127–157. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-018-9181-x
Dignath, C., & Veenman, M. V. J. (2021). The role of direct strategy instruction and indirect activation of self-regulated learning—Evidence from classroom observation studies. Educational Psychology Review, 33(2), 489–533. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09534-0
Dignath van Ewijk, C., Dickhäuser, O., & Büttner, G. (2013). Assessing how teachers enhance self-regulated learning: A multiperspective approach. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 12(3), 338–358. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1945-89184.108.40.2068
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation. Pearson.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256–273. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256
Eccles (Parsons), J. S., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J. L., & Midgley, C. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motivation (pp. 75–146). W. H. Freeman.
Eccles, J. S. (2005). Subjective task value and the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105–121). Guilford.
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the actor: The structure of adolescents' achievement task values and expectancy-related beliefs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(3), 215–225. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167295213003
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109–132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2020). From expectancy-value theory to situated expectancy-value theory: A developmental, social cognitive, and sociocultural perspective on motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101859. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101859
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 1017–1095). Wiley.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll). SAGE.
Finch, H. W., & Bronk, K. C. (2011). Conducting confirmatory latent class analysis using Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 18(1), 132–151. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2011.532732
Flake, J. K., Barron, K. E., Hulleman, C. S., McCoach, B. D., & Welsh, M. E. (2015). Measuring cost: The forgotten component of expectancy-value theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 232–244. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.03.002
Fong, C. J., Kremer, K. P., Hill-Troglin Cox, C., & Lawson, C. A. (2021). Expectancy-value profiles in math and science: A person-centered approach to cross-domain motivation with academic and STEM-related outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 65, 101962. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2021.101962
Gaines, R. E., Osman, D. J., Maddocks, D. L. S., Warner, J. R., Freeman, J. L., & Schallert, D. L. (2019). Teachers’ emotional experiences in professional development: Where they come from and what they can mean. Teaching and Teacher Education, 77, 53–65. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.09.008
Gaspard, H., Häfner, I., Parrisius, C., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2017). Assessing task values in five subjects during secondary school: Measurement structure and mean level differences across grade level, gender, and academic subjec. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 67–84. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.09.003
Geiser, C. (2011). Datenanalyse mit Mplus. Eine anwendungsorientierte Einführung [Data analysis with Mplus. An application-oriented introduction]. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Glogger-Frey, I., Ampatziadis, Y., Ohst, A., & Renkl, A. (2018). Future teachers’ knowledge about learning strategies: Misconcepts and knowledge-in-pieces. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 28, 41–55. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2018.02.001
Hertel, S., & Karlen, Y. (2021). Implicit theories of self-regulated learning: Interplay with students’ achievement goals, learning strategies, and metacognition. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), e12402. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12402
Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Jiang, Y., Rosenzweig, E. Q., & Gaspard, H. (2018). An expectancy-value-cost approach in predicting adolescent students’ academic motivation and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 54, 139–152. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.06.005
Johnson, M. L., & Sinatra, G. M. (2013). Use of task-value instructional inductions for facilitating engagement and conceptual change. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38(1), 51–63. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.09.003
Karlen, Y. (2016). Differences in students' metacognitive strategy knowledge, motivation, and strategy use: A typology of self-regulated learners. The Journal of Educational Research, 109(3), 253–265. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2014.942895
Karlen, Y., Hertel, S., & Hirt, C. N. (2020). Teachers’ professional competences in self-regulated learning: An approach to integrate teachers’ competences as self-regulated learners and as agents of self-regulated learning in a holistic manner [Original Research]. Frontiers in Education, 5, 159. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.00159
Karlen, Y., Hirt, C. N., Liska, A., & Stebner, F. (2021). Mindsets and Self-Concepts about self-regulated learning: Their relationships with emotions, strategy knowledge, and academic achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 661142. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.661142
Kistner, S., Rakoczy, K., Otto, B., Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Büttner, G., & Klieme, E. (2010). Promotion of self-regulated learning in classrooms: Investigating frequency, quality, and consequences for student performance. Metacognition and Learning, 5(2), 157–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-010-9055-3
Kosovich, J. J., Flake, J. K., & Hulleman, C. S. (2017). Short-term motivation trajectories: A parallel process model of expectancy-value. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 49, 130–139. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2017.01.004
Lanza, S. T., & Cooper, B. R. (2016). Latent class analysis for developmental research. Child Development Perspectives, 10(1), 59–64. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12163
Lau, K. L. (2013). Chinese language teachers' perception and implementation of self-regulated learning-based instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 31, 56–66. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.12.001
Lazarides, R., Dietrich, J., & Taskinen, P. H. (2019). Stability and change in students’ motivational profiles in mathematics: The role of perceived teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 79, 164–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.12.016
Li, C.-H. (2016). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behavior Research Methods, 48(3), 936–949. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-015-0619-7
Magnusson, D. (1998). The logic and implications of a person-oriented approach. In R. B. Cairns, L. R. Bergman, & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual: Essays in honor of Marian Radke-Yarrow (pp. 33–64). Sage.
Michalsky, T., & Schechter, C. (2013). Preservice teachers’ capacity to teach self-regulated learning: Integrating learning from problems and learning from successes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 30, 60–73. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.10.009
Morin, A. J. S., & Marsh, H. W. (2015). Disentangling shape from level effects in personcentered analyses: An illustration based on university teachers’ multidimensional profiles of effectiveness. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 22(1), 39–59. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.919825
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2017). Mplus User's Guide. Eighth Edition. Muthén & Muthén. https://www.statmodel.com/download/usersguide/MplusUserGuideVer_8.pdf
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Harvard Press.
Ohst, A., Glogger, I., Nückles, M., & Renkl, A. (2015). Helping preservice teachers with inaccurate and fragmentary prior knowledge to acquire conceptual understanding of psychological principles. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 14(1), 5–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475725714564925
Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on selfregulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 89–101. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3602_4
Peeters, J., De Backer, F., Kindekens, A., Triquet, K., & Lombaerts, K. (2016). Teacher differences in promoting students' self-regulated learning: Exploring the role of student characteristics. Learning and individual Differences, 52, 88–96. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.014
Pekrun, R. (2020). Commentary: Self-report is indispensable to assess students’ learning. Frontline Learning Research, 8(3), 185–193. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v8i3.637
Perez, T., Wormington, S. V., Barger, M. M., Schwartz-Bloom, R. D., Lee, Y.-k., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2018). Science expectancy, value, and cost profiles and their proximal and distal relations to undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math persistence. Science Education, 103(2), 264–286. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21490
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulated learning (pp. 451–502). Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50043-3
Reinhard, M.-A., Schindler, S., & Dickhäuser, O. (2015). Effects of subjective task values and information processing on motivation formation. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7(3), 58–66. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v7n3p58
Robins, R. W., John, O. P., & Caspi, A. (1998). The typological approach to studying personality. In R. B. Cairns, L. R. Bergman, & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual: Essays in honor of Marian Radke-Yarrow (pp. 135–160). Sage.
Sparfeldt, J. R., Burch, S. R., Rost, D. H., & Lehmann, G. (2008). Akkuratesse selbstberichteter Zensuren [Accuracy of self-reported grades]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 55, 68–75. https://www.reinhardt-journals.de/index.php/peu/article/download/501/2500
Spruce, R., & Bol, L. (2015). Teacher beliefs, knowledge, and practice of self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 10(2), 245–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-014-9124-0
Thomas, V., Peeters, J., DeBacker, F., & Lombaerts, K. (2020). Determinants of self-regulated learning practices in elementary education: A multilevel approach. Educational Studies, 48(1), 126–148. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2020.1745624
Vandevelde, S., Vandebussche, L., & Van Keer, H. (2012). Stimulating selfregulated learning in primary education: Encouraging versus hampering factors for teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1562–1571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.099
Vosniadou, S., Lawson, M. J., Wyra, M., Van Deur, P., Jeffries, D., & Darmawan, I. (2020). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs about learning and teaching and about the self-regulation of learning: A conceptual change perspective. International Journal of Educational Research, 99, 101495. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2019.101495
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68–81. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1015
Wigfield, A., Tonks, S., & Klauda, S. L. (2009). Expectancy‐value theory. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 55–75). Routledge.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Ringle, J. (1981). Effects of model persistence and statements of confidence on children's self-efficacy and problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(4), 485–493. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.115