Main Article Content
Teachers’ focus on their students’ learning is considered central in high-quality university teaching. This frontline research introduces a novel way to study how focusing on students’ learning can be found on the level of teachers’ visual noticing combined with verbal interpretations, i.e. their professional vision, when they observe teaching situations. A central question is also, whether professional vision skills are connected to teachers’ pedagogical education. Two short videos depicting teaching during a lecture, including different types of trigger events, were presented to teachers (N = 49), who were asked to think aloud while watching, and numerically evaluate the success of the teaching, to reveal their interpretation of the teaching situation. The results showed that pedagogically trained teachers paid more visual attention on the students and less on the teacher. Visual noticing of critical incidents preceded the formulation of accurate verbal interpretations. Noticing that the students were not active was connected to learning facilitating conceptions, which were further connected with corresponding numerical evaluation of the successfulness of teaching. Teachers who visually notice the important incidents during teaching can also formulate a more accurate verbal interpretation of the situation. Contrary to studies at lower levels of education, our study did not found evidence on the connection between teaching experience and professional vision. At the university level, pedagogical education seems to be a stronger predictor of professional vision.
FLR adopts the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Common License (BY-NC-ND). That is, Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors with, however, first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.
Barbeau, K., Boileau, K., Sarr, F., & Smith, K. (2019). Path analysis in Mplus: A tutorial using conceptual model of psychological and behavioural antecedents of bulimic symptoms in young adults. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 15(1), 38–53. https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.15.1.p038
Beach, P. & McConnel, J. (2019). Eye tracking methodology for studying teacher learning: A review of the research. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 42(5), 485–501. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743727X.2018.1496415
Cortina, K. S., Miller, K. F., McKenzie, R., & Epstein, A. (2015). Where low and high inference data converge: Validation of CLASS assessment of mathematics instruction using mobile eye tracking with expert and novice teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13, 389–403. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-014-9610-5
Doyle, W. (2006). Ecological approaches to classroom management. In C. Evertson & C. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice and contemporary issues, pp. 97–125. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Duchowski, A. T. (2007). Eye tracking methodology. Theory and practice. (2nd ed.). Springer London.
Dunekacke, S., Jenβen, L., & Blömeke, S. (2015). Effects of mathematics content knowledge on pre-school teachers’ performance: A video-based assessment of perception and planning abilities in informal learning situations. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13, 267–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-014-9596-z
Entwistle, N. (2005). Learning outcomes and ways of thinking across contrasting disciplines and settings in higher education. The Curriculum Journal, 16(1), 67–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958517042000336818
Ericsson, K. A. (2008). Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: A general overview. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15, 988–994. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00227.x
Gibbs, G., & Coffey, M. (2004). The impact of training of university teachers on their teaching skills, their approach to teaching and the approach to learning of their students. Active Learning in Higher Education, 5, 87–100. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787404040463
Grub, A-S., Biermann, A., & Brünken, R. (2020). Process-based measurement of professional vision of (prospective) teachers in the field of classroom management. A systematic review. Journal for educational research online 12, 75–102. https://doi.org/10.25656/01:21187
Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606–633. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1994.96.3.02a00100
Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & van de Weijer, J. (2011). Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures. Oxford University Press.
Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87(4), 329–354. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.87.4.329
Kaiser, G., Busse, A., Hoth, J., König, J., & Blömeke, S. (2015). About the complexities of video-based assessments: Theoretical and methodological approaches to overcoming shortcomings of research on teachers’ competence. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(2), 369–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-015-9616-7
Kember, D., & Kwan, K. (2000). Lecturer’s approaches to teaching and their relationship to conceptions of good teaching. Instructional Science, 28, 469–490. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026569608656
Knight, P. (2002). Being a teacher in higher education. Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Krebs, M-C., Schüler, A., & Scheiter, K. (2019). Just follow my eyes: The influence of model-observer similarity on Eye Movement Modeling Examples. Learning and Instruction, 61, 126–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.10.005
Kok, E. M., & Jarodzka, H. (2016). Before your very eyes: The value and limitations of eye tracking in medical education. Medical Education, 51(1), 114–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13066
König, J., Blömeke, S., Klein, P., Suhl, U., Busse, A., & Kaiser, G. (2014). Is teachers’ general pedagogical knowledge a premise for noticing and interpreting classroom situations? A video-based assessment approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 38, 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.11.004
Lachner, A., Jarodzka, H., & Nückles, M. (2016). What makes an expert teacher? Investigating teachers’ professional vision and discourse abilities. Instructional Science 44(3), 197–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-016-9376-y
Lonka, K., & Ketonen, E. (2012). How to make a lecture course an engaging learning experience? Studies for the Learning Society, 2-3, 63–74. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10240-012-0006-1
McIntyre, N. A., Mainhard, M. T., & Klassen, R. M. (2017). Are you looking to teach? Cultural, temporal and dynamic insights into expert teacher gaze. Learning and Instruction, 49, 41–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.12.005
Meschede, N., Fiebranz, A., Möller, K., & Steffensky, M. (2017). Teachers’ professional vision, pedagogical content knowledge and beliefs: On its relation and differences between pre-service and in-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 158–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.04.010
Postareff, L., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2008). Variation in teachers’ descriptions of teaching: Broadening the understanding of teaching in higher education. Learning and Instruction, 18, 109–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.01.008
Postareff, L., Nevgi, A., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2007). The effect of pedagogical training on teaching in higher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 557–571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2006.11.013
Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (2014). Qualitative variation in approaches to university teaching and learning in large first-year classes. Higher Education, 67, 783–795. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9690-0
Pouta, M., Lehtinen, E., & Palonen, T. (2020). Student teacher’ and experienced teachers’ professional vision of students’ understanding of the rational number concept. Educational Psychology Review 33, 109–128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09536-y
Samuelowicz, K., & Bain, J. D. (2001). Revisiting academics’ beliefs about teaching and learning. Higher Education, 41, 299–325. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004130031247
Seidel, T., Stürmer, K., Blomberg, G., Kobarg, M., & Schwindt, K. (2011). Teacher learning from analysis of videotaped classroom situations: Does it make a difference whether teachers observe their own teaching or that of others? Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 259–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.009
Sherin, M. G., Russ, R. S., Sherin, B. L., & Colestock, A. (2008). Professional vision in action: An exploratory study. Issues in Teacher Education, 17(2), 27–46.
Stahnke, R., & Blömeke, S. (2021). Novice and expert teachers’ situation-specific skills regarding classroom management: What do they perceive, interpret and suggest? Teaching and Teacher Education 98, 103243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103243
Stes, A., & Van Petegem, P. (2011). Instructional development for early career academics: an overview of impact. Educational Research 53, 459–474. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2011.625156
Stürmer, K. Seidel, T., & Holzberger, D. (2016). Intra-individual differences in developing professional vision: Preservice teachers’ changes in the course of an innovative teacher education program. Instructional Science, 44, 293–309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-016-9373-1
Uiboleht, K., Karm, M., & Postareff, L. (2018). The interplay between teachers’ approaches to teaching, students’ approaches to learning and learning outcomes: A qualitative multi-case study. Learning Environments Research, 21, 321–347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-018-9257-1
van es, E. A. & Sherin, M. G. (2002). Learning to notice: Scaffolding new teachers’ interpretations of classroom interactions. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10, 571–596. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/9171/
van den Bogert, N., van Bruggen, J., Kostons, D., & Jochems, W. (2014). First steps into understanding teachers’ visual perception of classroom events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 208–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.09.001
van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.021
van Marlen, T., Van Wermeskerken, M., Jarodzka, H. Van Gog, T. (2016). Showing a model’s eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 448–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.041
Vilppu, H., Södervik, I., Postareff, L., & Murtonen, M. (2019). The effect of short online pedagogical training on university teachers’ interpretations of teaching–learning situations. Instructional Science, 47(6), 679–709. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-019-09496-z
Wolff, C. E., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2017). See and tell: Differences between expert and novice teachers’ interpretations of problematic classroom management events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 295–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.04.015
Wolff, C. E., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2021). Classroom management scripts: a theoretical model contrasting expert and novice teachers’ knowledge and awareness of classroom events. Educational Psychology Review, 33, 131–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09542-0
Wolff, C. E., Jarodzka, H., van den Bogert, N., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2016). Teacher vision: Expert and novice teachers’ perception of problematic classroom management scenes. Instructional Science, 44(3), 243–265. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-016-9367-z